VU
Fiordland Penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bce+3bce+4bce; C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2bce+3bce+4bce; C2a(i)
2016 Vulnerable A2be+3bce+4bce; C1+2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable A2be+3bce+4bce;C1+2a(i)
2010 Vulnerable A2b,e; A3b,c,e; A4b,c,e; C1; C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable A2b,e; A3b,e; A4b,e; C1; C2a(i)
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 81,800 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24 medium
Number of locations 12 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 good estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing good inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 12 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.6 - - -

Population justification:

The population has been estimated at c.5,500-7,000 mature individuals (Mattern 2013, Long 2014). Due to the cryptic breeding habit and resulting difficulty of surveying the species, this number is likely to be an underestimate (Mattern 2013). Therefore, the population size is placed here in the range 2,500-9,999.

Trend justification: Introduced predators, human disturbance and accidental deaths caused by fisheries are all contributing to an on-going decline in this species's population. Recently, at some sites numbers appear to have declined, while slightly increasing numbers have been reported from others making it difficult to identify clear species-wide population trends (Mattern 2013). At Open Bay Island, there was a decline of 33% between 1988 and 1995 (Ellis et al. 1998), and at Dusky Sound there were anecdotal reports of thousands of birds in 1900, but only a few hundred remained in the 1990s (Russ et al. 1992). The use of unstandardised methods and the fact that results are hard to interpret, means further research is urgently needed, but declines are suspected to have been rapid, and are placed here in the range 30-49% over three generations (c. 29 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia V Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Awarua Point
New Zealand Breaksea Sound
New Zealand Cascade
New Zealand Chalky Preservation Inlets
New Zealand Charles Sound
New Zealand Doubtful Sound
New Zealand Dusky Sound Wet Jacket Arm
New Zealand Fiordland - West Coast South Island (South) (offshore)
New Zealand George Sound
New Zealand Heretaniwha Point Waterfall Creek
New Zealand Hope River
New Zealand Jackson Head
New Zealand Martins Bay
New Zealand Milford Sound Piopiotahi
New Zealand North Coast Rakiura
New Zealand Northern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Open Bay Islands
New Zealand Port Adventure
New Zealand Port Pegasus
New Zealand Rakiura (offshore)
New Zealand Solander Islands
New Zealand Southern South Island (offshore)
New Zealand Southern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Whakapohai
New Zealand Whenua Hou Codfish Island
New Zealand Yates Point

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Gallirallus australis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mustela erminea Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Trichosurus vulpecula Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Eudyptes pachyrhynchus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2019.