LC
Fieldfare Turdus pilaris



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass 106 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 21,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 70000000-144999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.2 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 14,200,000-28,600,000 pairs, which equates to 28,400,000-57,300,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.40% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 71,000,000-143,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable overall in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have been stable (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Karst
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Kyllini (Ziria)
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Marais de Sacy
France Vallée de l'Aisne
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Val Grande
Italy Cividalese and upper Torre valley
Italy Assa valley
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtuguz Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
France Montagne de la Serre
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Austria Western Weinviertel
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Luosto
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Germany Vogelsberg
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Turdus pilaris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/07/2020.