Ferruginous Partridge Caloperdix oculeus


Justification of Red List Category
This enigmatic species is rarely encountered in much of its range, which has suffered extensive forest loss over the past few decades. This forest loss, accompanied by trapping pressure, is on-going and the species is thought to be undergoing a moderately rapid population reduction; it therefore qualifies as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as very rare in southern Thailand (Madge and McGowan 2002).

Trend justification
There are no data on population trends, but the species is likely to be in decline at a moderately rapid rate, owing primarily to habitat loss and degradation, and to some extent trapping pressure.

Distribution and population

Caloperdix oculeus ranges from south-eastern Myanmar and south-western Thailand through Peninsular Malaysia onto Sumatra, Indonesia, with isolated populations in Borneo in northern Sarawak and eastern Sabah, Malaysia. It is generally scarce throughout its range, although it can be locally moderately common, e.g. in the Kandang River area, Jambi, Sumatra (I. Mauro in litt. 2003), and is likely to be declining overall.


This species inhabits evergreen and semi-evergreen rainforests, including swampy areas, dry hill forest and secondary forest with sufficient bamboo. It has been recorded to 1,200 m.


Forest destruction in the Sundaic lowlands of Indonesia and Malaysia has been extensive (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998). Declines driven by habitat loss and degradation are compounded by trapping for the cage-bird industry. However, the species's use of secondary growth and higher elevations implies that it is not immediately threatened.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess the size of all sub-populations. Regularly monitor trends in all sub-populations. Asses the effect of hunting on populations. Protect large areas of forest in areas where it occurs.


Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Caloperdix oculeus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/08/2020.