Ferruginous Hawk Buteo regalis


Justification of Red List category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
(Rich et al. 2004)

Trend justification
This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (155% increase over 40 years, equating to a 26.3% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Distribution and population

This species occurs in North America, nesting in 17 states in the USA and three provinces in Canada. It winters in the south USA and north Mexico.


An open-country species inhabiting grasslands, shrub-steppes and deserts.


Threats include cultivation, over-grazing and fire degrading habitat throughout its range, and the controlling of small mammal populations (prairie-dog towns and gopher populations) limiting food resources.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. CMS Appendix II.


Text account compilers
Wege, D., Benstead, P., Mahood, S.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Buteo regalis. Downloaded from on 29/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 29/09/2023.