NT
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2017 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 574 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 25,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 51,700,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.6 - - -

Population justification: The most recent population estimates as collated by Wetlands International are as follows: 5,700-6,300 individuals in the western Mediterranean and in North and West Africa; 50,000-82,000 individuals in Eastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean and Sahelian Africa; 25,000-50,000 individuals in western and south-west Asia as well as in north-east Africa, and 100,000 individuals elsewhere in Asia (Wetlands International 2017a,b; Mundkur et al. 2017), giving a total of c.180,000–240,000 individuals.

Trend justification: This species's range has fluctuated considerably over the last c.150 years as it has modified its distribution. However, most figures suggest widespread declines (Wetlands International 2016). Owing to significant local declines it was classified as Vulnerable in Europe, however the most recent assessment of the European population listed the trend as unknown and the species's status as Least Concern (BirdLife International 2015). Evidence of declines in the larger Asian populations is sparse, and sometimes contradictory. In the absence of a clearer overall picture, the overall population is precautionarily suspected to be declining at a moderate rate over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Cameroon U Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Togo V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Algeria Complexe de zones humides de la plaine de Guerbes - Sanhadja
Algeria Lac des Oiseaux / Garaet et Touyour
Algeria Lac Oubeïra
Algeria Lac Tonga
Algeria Marais de Mekhada
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Armenia Lake Sevan and environs
Armenia Metsamor
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Lake Hajigabul
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Bangladesh Aila Beel
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bardaca
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hutovo blato
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Garvansko Marsh
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Orsoya Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Rayanovtsi
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Chad Lake Fitri
Croatia Cesma River Carp Fishponds
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Pokuplje Basin
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Egypt Aswan reservoir
Egypt Lake Burullus
Egypt Lake Nasser
Egypt Upper Nile
Egypt Wadi El Rayan Protected Area
Ethiopia Bishoftu lake
Ethiopia Chelekleka lake and swamp
Ethiopia Green Lake
Ethiopia Lake Ashenge
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Bodanrück and Mindelsee
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Untermain
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kythira island
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lake Kalodiki, Margariti and Karteri marshes
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Lakes Trichonis and Lysimachia
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Inner Somogy
Hungary Kesznyéten
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Nagy-berek of Fonyód
Hungary Pacsmag Lakes of Regöly
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
India Chakrashila Complex
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Kanjli Lake
India Sareswar Beel
India Tso Morari Lake and adjacent marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Cheghakor marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gandoman marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iraq Attariya Plains
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Judean foothills
Italy Argentario, Laguna di Orbetello Lagoon e Lago di Burano
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Mazarese wetlands
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy River Sele middle valley
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Tevere valley
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Kamysh-Samarskie Lakes
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Kazakhstan Lakes in the lower reaches of the Chu River
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Telikol Lakes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Mali Lac Faguibine
Mali Lac Fati
Mali Lac Horo
Mali Lac Télé
Mali Séri
Malta Għawdex marine
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Mauritania Sawana - Oum Lellé
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section
Myanmar Inle Lake
Myanmar Myittha Lakes
Myanmar Nyaung Kan - Minhla Kan
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands
Nepal Bardia National Park
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Ghodaghodi Lake
Nepal Jagdishpur Reservoir
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Rara National Park
Nepal Sagarmatha National Park
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
North Macedonia Lake Prespa
North Macedonia Pelagonia
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Oman Khawr Rouri
Oman Khor Dirif
Oman Wadi Darbat
Pakistan Kurram River system
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes)
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Mosty-Zahajki Site
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Podedworze Reservoir
Poland Polesie
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Portugal Pera marsh
Portugal Vilamoura
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Balta Vederoasa
Romania Belceşti reservoir
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Câmpia Gherghiţei
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Comana
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Dăbuleni - Grinduri
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dumbrăviţa - Rotbav - Măgura Codlei
Romania Dunăre - Olteniţa
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Grădiştea - Dridu
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Ianca - Plopul - Sărat
Romania Iazurile de pe Văile Ibănesei - Başeului - Podrigăi
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Lacurile Fălticeni
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Gălăţui
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Lunca Siretului Inferior
Romania Măxineni
Romania Olt valley
Romania Olteniţa - Ulmeni
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Suhaia
Romania Vedea - Dunăre
Russia (Central Asian) Nizhnechumyshskaya
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Adzhi Lake
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan)
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Russia (European) Mekhteb reservoir
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Russia (European) Sarpinskaya lake-system
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa lagoons
Saudi Arabia King Faisal Airbase, Tabuk
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Serbia Akumulacija Gruza
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Zasavica
Slovakia Medzibodrozie
Slovenia Črete
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Syria Bahrat Homs
Syria Tual al-'Abba
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tunisia Barrage El Houareb
Tunisia Barrage Lebna
Tunisia Douz Laâla
Tunisia Ghidma
Tunisia Ichkeul
Turkey Adıyaman - Gölbaşı Lakes
Turkey Akdoğan Mountain
Turkey Devegeçidi Dam
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Turkey Işıklı Lake
Turkey Karakaya Reservoir
Turkey Karakuyu Marshes
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Kocaçay Delta
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Mogan lake
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Terkos Basin
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Turkey Van Plains
Turkmenistan Ekerem - Esenguly
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan South Cheleken Bay
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Ukraine Kagul lake
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine River Danube
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Snake island
Uzbekistan Aksay Lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Arnasay Lake System
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Mashankul and Khojakul lake complex
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Talimardzhan Reservoir
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Zekry Lake
Uzbekistan Zholdyrbas Lake
Yemen Ta'izz wadis

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas marginal resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 880 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 0 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Amorpha fruticosa Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ctenopharyngodon idella Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Eichhornia crassipes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ondatra zibethicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Silurus glanis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Aythya ferina Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Hybridisation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Aythya fuligula Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Hybridisation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aythya nyroca. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/04/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/04/2020.