Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2017 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 574 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 25,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 51,700,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.6 - - -

Population justification: The most recent population estimates as collated by Wetlands International are as follows: 5,700-6,300 individuals in the western Mediterranean and in North and West Africa; 50,000-82,000 individuals in Eastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean and Sahelian Africa; 25,000-50,000 individuals in western and south-west Asia as well as in north-east Africa, and 100,000 individuals elsewhere in Asia (Wetlands International 2017a,b; Mundkur et al. 2017), giving a total of c.180,000–240,000 individuals.

Trend justification: This species's range has fluctuated considerably over the last c.150 years as it has modified its distribution. However, most figures suggest widespread declines (Wetlands International 2016). Owing to significant local declines it was classified as Vulnerable in Europe, however the most recent assessment of the European population listed the trend as unknown and the species's status as Least Concern (BirdLife International 2015). Evidence of declines in the larger Asian populations is sparse, and sometimes contradictory. In the absence of a clearer overall picture, the overall population is precautionarily suspected to be declining at a moderate rate over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Cameroon U Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Togo V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bardaca
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hutovo blato
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Lake Ych-chala (Novogolovka-chala)
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Latvia Engure lake
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Dolni Bogrov-Kazichene
Bulgaria Island near Gorni Tzibar
Bulgaria Pyasachnik Reservoir
Bulgaria Plovdiv Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Rozov Kladenets Reservoir
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Parches-Somova wetland
Romania Comana
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Lake Tataru
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia River Drava
Turkey Kocaçay Delta
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Işıklı Lake
Turkey Çorak Lake
Turkey Salda Lake
Turkey Karamık Marshes
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Mogan lake
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Kulu Lake
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Turkey Göksu Delta
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Parczew forests
Poland Janów forests
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Starzawa ponds
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Kythira island
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Lake Kalodiki, Margariti and Karteri marshes
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lake Pamvotida (Ioannina)
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Lakes Trichonis and Lysimachia
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Flood plain of Tiszaalpár
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Velence Lake–Dinnyés Lake
Hungary Nagy-berek of Fonyód
Hungary Pacsmag Lakes of Regöly
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Hungary Hanság
Hungary Kesznyéten
Hungary Szatmár-Bereg
Hungary Inner Somogy
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Russia (European) Adzhi Lake
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Varfolomeyevskiye saltmarshes
Russia (European) Novokvasnikovski liman
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Russia (European) Eastern coast of the Sea of Azov
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain Lebrija, Las Cabezas and Espera lagoons
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Almenara marshes
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Berdyans'ka peninsula
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Psel river valley near Komsomol's'k
Ukraine Oril' river valley
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Brenne centrale
France Etang de Biguglia
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Cap Gris-nez
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France La Dombes
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Arjuzanx
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Orbetello lagoon and Burano lake
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Po Delta
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Laga mountains
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Rieti lakes
Italy Vico lake
Italy Le Cesine
Italy Casaraccio pool, Stintino saltpans and Pilo pool
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Lake Viverone
Italy Lakes Lesina and Varano
Italy Stagnone di Marsala and Trapani saltpans
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Coast from Palo to Santa Marinella
Italy Pools of Florence plain
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Palude e Tombolo di Bolgheri
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Lake Massaciuccoli
Italy Diaccia Botrona
Italy Litorale Romano
Italy Migliarino-San Rossore
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy River Sele middle valley
Italy Iseo peatlands
Italy Features of the coast between Cape Teulada and Cape Pula
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Velipoja
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Black Sea
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Obedska bara
Italy Caorle lagoon
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Poland Barycz river valley
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Germany Lewitz
Germany Schaalsee
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Georgia Kolkheti
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Pokuplje Basin
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Armenia Lake Sevan and environs
Algeria Lac Oubeïra
Algeria Lac Tonga
Algeria Lac des Oiseaux / Garaet et Touyour
Algeria Marais de Mekhada
Algeria Complexe de zones humides de la plaine de Guerbes - Sanhadja
Egypt Lake Burullus
Egypt Wadi El Rayan Protected Area
Egypt Upper Nile
Egypt Aswan reservoir
Egypt Lake Nasser
Ethiopia Lake Ashenge
Ethiopia Bishoftu lake
Ethiopia Chelekleka lake and swamp
Ethiopia Green Lake
Mali Lac Faguibine
Mali Lac Télé
Mali Lac Horo
Mali Lac Fati
Mali Séri
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Mauritania Sawana - Oum Lellé
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Chad Lake Fitri
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Barrage Lebna
Tunisia Douz Laâla
Tunisia Ghidma
Croatia Lower Posavina
Ukraine Karachunivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kajiry village)
Italy Argentario, Laguna di Orbetello Lagoon e Lago di Burano
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Ukraine Velyka Osokorovka
Portugal Pera marsh
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Ukraine Kagul lake
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Ukraine River Danube
Ukraine Snake island
Turkey Akdoğan Mountain
Turkey Kesikköprü Reservoir
Turkey Gölova Lakes
Turkey Terkos Basin
Turkey Karakaya Reservoir
Turkey Adıyaman - Gölbaşı Lakes
Turkey Sükümbet Lake
Turkey Karakuyu Marshes
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Iraq Attariya Plains
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah
Iraq Tharthar Lake and Al-Dhebaeji Fields
Iraq Samara Wetlands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Cheghakor marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gandoman marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Oman Khor Dirif
Oman Wadi Darbat
Oman Khawr Rouri
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa lagoons
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia King Faisal Airbase, Tabuk
Syria Bahrat Homs
Syria Tual al-'Abba
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Mauritania Gâat Mahmoûdé
Tunisia Barrage El Houareb
Russia (European) Sarpinskaya lake-system
Russia (European) Sulakskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Turalinskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Temirgoiskiye lakes
Russia (European) Mekhteb reservoir
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Myanmar Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section
Myanmar Inle Lake
Myanmar Nyaung Kan - Minhla Kan
Myanmar Myittha Lakes
India Chakrashila Complex
Bangladesh Aila Beel
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes)
Pakistan Kurram River system
India Tso Morari Lake and adjacent marshes
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Kanjli Lake
Georgia Alazani Valley
Georgia Lower Kura Valley
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (Central Asian) Nizhnechumyshskaya
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Lake Hajigabul
Russia (Central Asian) Turina mountain
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Bulgaria Chelopechene Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Portugal Vilamoura
Armenia Metsamor
France Etang de Lindre
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Plaine du Forez
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Forêt de la Reine
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Proslaukhinskaya
Russia (European) Oka valley in vicinity of Murmino
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Afghanistan Kole Hashmat Khan
North Macedonia Lake Prespa
North Macedonia Pelagonia
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Amirkelayeh lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Jordan Khirbat al Samra (sewage works)
Oman Masirah island
Oman Salalah Bird Sanctuary
Oman Khor Mughsayl
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Syria Euphrates valley
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Orsoya Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Rayanovtsi
Bulgaria Garvansko Marsh
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Turkmenistan Caspian Sea shore Garshy - Kianly
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Uzbekistan Aksay Lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Arnasay Lake System
Uzbekistan Zekry Lake
Uzbekistan Talimardzhan Reservoir
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Zholdyrbas Lake
Kazakhstan Kamysh-Samarskie Lakes
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Turkmenistan Garshy - Tarta
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay
Turkmenistan South Cheleken Bay
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Turkmenistan Ayrakly – Garadzhaovlak
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Turkmenistan Erajy
Turkmenistan Soltandag Lake
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Taylak Lake
Italy Taro river
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol
Turkmenistan Kelif Lakes
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Garadashly - Ekerem
Turkmenistan Ekerem - Esenguly
Ukraine River Tysa Valley
Turkmenistan Khanguyy
Ukraine Samars'ka bay
Vietnam Thai Thuy
Kazakhstan Lakes in the lower reaches of the Chu River
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Italy Ticino river
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan)
Poland Pilica River Valley
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Kazakhstan Telikol Lakes
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Podedworze Reservoir
Poland Polesie
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Upper Labunka River Valley
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Russia (European) Sulakskaya bay
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Irgaklinski forest
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Syria Baath Lake
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Turkey Devegeçidi Dam
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Slovakia Medzibodrožie
Slovenia Črete
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Croatia Cesma River Carp Fishponds
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Italy Tevere valley
Turkey Van Plains
Italy Mazarese wetlands
Greece Lake Voulkaria
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula
Russia (European) Kazachka
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Germany Konstanzer Bucht of Lake Constance
Germany Ismaninger Speichersee and fish ponds
Germany Bodanrück and Mindelsee
Germany Untermain
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Romania Belceşti reservoir
Romania Balta Vederoasa
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Câmpia Gherghiţei
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Dăbuleni - Grinduri
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dumbrăviţa - Rotbav - Măgura Codlei
Romania Dunăre - Olteniţa
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Lake Gălăţui
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Grădiştea - Dridu
Romania Ianca - Plopul - Sărat
Romania Iazurile de pe Văile Ibănesei - Başeului - Podrigăi
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lunca Siretului Inferior
Romania Măxineni
Romania Olteniţa - Ulmeni
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Romania Suhaia
Romania Olt valley
Romania Vedea - Dunăre
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Lacurile Fălticeni
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Poland Tuchola Forest
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Ilawa Forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Mosty-Zahajki Site
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Roztocze
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Lower Sola River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Nepal Jagdishpur Reservoir
Nepal Rara National Park
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands
Nepal Bardia National Park
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Ghodaghodi Lake
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Sagarmatha National Park
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Algeria Lac Melah
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Malta Għawdex marine
Montenegro Bojana Delta
Montenegro Tivat Salina
Tunisia Barrage Chiba
Tunisia Barrage Moussa
Tunisia Barrage Oued El Haajar
Yemen Aden
Serbia Akumulacija Gruza
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
Uzbekistan Mashankul and Khojakul lake complex
Italy Punta Alberete, Canna Valley, San Vitale Pinewood, and Pialassa of Baiona
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Strofades islets
Greece Schinias marsh
Greece Western Milos, Antimilos and Polyaigos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Geropotamos estuary, Crete
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Turkmenistan Mergen
Syria Upper Orontes River and Homs Lake (Bahrat Homs)
Serbia Carska Bara
India Ujjani Reservoir
India Sirpur Lake
India Sareswar Beel
India Loktak Lake
Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostarsko Blato
Bosnia and Herzegovina Duvanjsko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Kupreško polje
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Albania Lake Megali Prespa
Albania Vlora Bay, Karaburun Peninsula and Cika mountain
Albania Lake Butrinti

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas marginal resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 880 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 0 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Amorpha fruticosa Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ctenopharyngodon idella Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Eichhornia crassipes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ondatra zibethicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Silurus glanis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Aythya ferina Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Aythya fuligula Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Aythya nyroca. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2022.