EN
Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bc+3bc+4bc A2bc+3bc+4bc

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2bc+3bc+4bc
2015 Endangered A2bc+3bc+4bc
2012 Vulnerable A4bcd
2010 Vulnerable A4b,c,d
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,890,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 47,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 70-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 70-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -

Population justification: Wetlands International (2006) estimated the global population at c. 38,000 individuals, although a more recent update now estimates the population at 32,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). It is therefore placed in the band 20,000-49,999 individuals.

Trend justification: An analysis of monitoring data collected from around Australia and New Zealand (Studds et al. in prep.) suggests that the species has declined much more rapidly than was previously thought; with an annual rate of decline of 0.058 equating to a loss of 81.7% over three generations. Loss of habitat at critical stopover sites in the Yellow Sea is suspected to be the key threat to this species and given that it is restricted to the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, the declines in the non-breeding population are thought to be representative of the global population.

Local-scale declines have also been reported: the species has been declining steadily in Australia, at a rate of 2.4% annually in Moreton Bay between 1992 and 2008 (Wilson et al. 2011);  c. 5% annually in Victoria between 1980 and 2010 (D. Rogers in litt. 2012); by over 65% in Tasmania since the 1950s (Reid and Park 2003); and by 40% across 49 Australian sites between c. 1983 and c. 2007 (D. Rogers et al. in litt. 2009, Birds Australia in litt. to Garnett et al. 2011). Declines seem equally worrying in North-western Australia (D. Rogers in litt. 2012). Furthermore, the population at Saemangeum (South Korea) has decreased by 32.6% (c. 1,800 birds) between 2006 and 2008 due to the reclamation of tidal flats (Moores 2006, Moores et al. in litt. 2008). Although these sites only represent a proportion of the wintering and stopover populations, threats are widespread and are projected to cause population declines in the future (D. Rogers in litt. 2009). Given that more reclamation is proposed within the Yellow Sea,with widespread threats elsewhere on the flyway, it is assumed that these declines will continue.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan U Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of V Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
USA V Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Adelaide and Mary River Floodplains
Australia Buckingham Bay
Australia Corner Inlet
Australia Eighty Mile Beach
Australia Great Sandy Strait
Australia Gulf Plains
Australia Hunter Estuary
Australia Milingimbi Islands
Australia Moreton Bay and Pumicestone Passage
Australia Port McArthur Tidal Wetlands System
Australia Repulse Bay to Ince Bay
Australia Roebuck Bay
Australia Shoalwater Bay (Rockhampton)
Australia Western Port
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
Indonesia Sembilang
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
North Korea Amrok River estuary
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve)
North Korea Chongdan field
North Korea Daedong Bay
North Korea Ongjin Bay
North Korea Sogam-do, Daegam-do, Zung-do, Ae-do and Hyengzedo islands
Palau Northern Peleliu Lkes (sandflats)
Philippines Olango Island
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
South Korea Yubu-do island

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Numenius madagascariensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017.