Evening Grosbeak Hesperiphona vespertina


Taxonomic note

Hesperiphona vespertina (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Coccothraustes and listed as C. vespertinus following AOU (1998 & supplements); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2ac+3c+4ac

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2ac+3c+4ac
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 17,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3400000 good estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.5 - - -

Population justification: The population size has been estimated at 3.4 million mature individuals (Rosenberg et al. 2016). This equates to 5.1 million individuals in total.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decline over the last 40 years in North America (77.7% decline over 40 years [Butcher and Niven 2007]). More recent estimates suggest an even steeper rate of decline (94% between 1970 and 2014 [Rosenberg et al. 2016]). The species may have disappeared from 50% of recorded sites between 1988 and 2006, and where the species remained, abundance dropped by 27% (Bonter and Harvey 2008). Taken from long-term trends (1966-2017), data from the Christmas Bird Count suggest an annual decline of 3.47% (1.43-6.23% annual decline) in this species (T. Meehan in litt. 2018). This would equate to a reduction of 44.16% (21.13-65.42%) over three generations, and trends appear to be ongoing, as Breeding Bird Survey data from between 2005 and 2015 gives an annual decline of 2.9% (0.09-5.45% per year) (Sauer et al. 2017), roughly equating to a decline of 38.5% (1.5-60.3%) over three generations. Therefore, declines are placed here in the range 30-49% over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Canada N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mexico Cebadillas
Mexico Guacamayita
Mexico La Cima
Mexico La Malinche
Mexico Las Bufas
Mexico Maderas Chihuahua
Mexico Mesa de Guacamayas
Mexico Nevado de Colima
Mexico Piélagos
Mexico Sur del Valle de México
Mexico Sierra de Taxco-Nevado de Toluca

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude 1500 - 3500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Hesperiphona vespertina. Downloaded from on 22/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/01/2021.