European Turtle-dove Streptopelia turtur


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2016 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2015 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 35,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 7,080,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 12800000-47600000 estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.3 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 3,150,000-5,940,000 pairs, which equates to 6,310,000-11,900,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 19,300,000-71,400,000 individuals. This roughly equates to 12,800,000-47,600,000 mature individuals. Further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and unsustainable levels of exploitation. In Europe, the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 15.9 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline, based on data from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands, P. Vorisek in litt. 2008). In Central Asia (Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), an analysis of observations of the species suggests that it has experienced a moderate or possibly strong decline over the past two to four decades (R. Ayé in litt. 2015). In Uzbekistan, the species has declined severely over the past thirty years (R. Kashkarov in litt. 2015). The formerly large population in European Russia has crashed by > 80% since 2000 and by > 90% since 1980 (BirdLife International 2015). Declines have also been reported from parts of east and south-east Kazakhstan; for example the species is now rare or even absent in the Manrak Mountains, where it was once common (Wassink and Oreel 2008).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Comoros V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon V Extant
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Namibia V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan V Extant
Palestine N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Africa V Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Zachodniaja Biarezina
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Cyprus Pafos Forest
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Goričko
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Greece Strofades islets
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Lake Kalodiki, Margariti and Karteri marshes
Greece Mount Kyllini (Ziria)
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Mount Kerkis, Samos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Spain River Moros
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain La Cabrera mountain range
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain El Médano coast
Spain Pajonales, Ojeda, Inagua and La Data pine woodlands
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
France Plaine des Maures
France Marais de Sacy
France Pointe de Grave
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Grigne
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy Piave river
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Vico lake
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Cicolano
Italy River Biferno
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Selva del Lamone
Italy Carso
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Cer mountain
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Serbia Prokletije
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Tríbeč
Slovakia Bukovské hills
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Muránska plateau and Stolické hills
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Jerma
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Zlot gorge--Dubasnica
Serbia Resava gorge
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Machland
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Unterlammer hill country
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Heideboden
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Dalum Wietmarscher swamp
Germany Georgsdorfer swamp
Germany Nürnberger Reichswald
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Russia (Central Asian) Parshivye mountains
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Belasitza mountain
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Ponor
France Montagne de la Serre
France Col de l'Escrinet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Austria Neusiedler See
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Freiwald
Austria Salzach valley
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Ukraine River Tysa Valley
Ukraine Ratsynska Dacha Zakaznik
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Ticino river
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Crava-Morozzo lakes
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Hasbruch
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Hildesheim forest
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Retzower Heide
Bosnia and Herzegovina Nevesinjsko polje
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Widawa and Olesnica River Valley
Estonia Karula
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Netherlands Susteren - Roermond
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Panningen - Roggel
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Misso
Kazakhstan Ural River Valley
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Turkmenistan Mergen
Serbia Toplica
Serbia Presevo valley - Rujen
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Timocko pobrdje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Duvanjsko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Lušci polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Dabarsko and Fatničko Karstic Fields
Bosnia and Herzegovina Popovo polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostarsko Blato
Albania Narta Lagoon

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Streptopelia decaocto Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Trichomonas gallinae Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Streptopelia turtur. Downloaded from on 10/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 10/12/2022.