VU
European Turtle-dove Streptopelia turtur



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2015 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 36,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 7,020,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 13000000-48000000 estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.3 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 3,150,000-5,940,000 pairs, which equates to 6,310,000-11,900,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 19,300,000-71,400,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and unsustainable levels of exploitation. In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 15.9 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on data from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands, P. Vorisek in litt. 2008). In Central Asia (Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) an analysis of observations of the species suggests that it has experienced a moderate or possibly strong decline over the past two to four decades (R. Ayé in litt. 2015). In Uzbekistan the species has declined severely over the past thirty years (R. Kashkarov in litt. 2015). The formerly large population in European Russia has crashed by >80% since 2000 and by >90% since 1980 (BirdLife International 2015). Declines have also been reported from parts of east and south-east Kazakhstan, for example the species is now rare, or even absent in the Manrak Mountains, where it was once common (Wassink and Oreel 2008).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Comoros V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Namibia V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan V Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Africa V Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Sakar
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Italy Selva del Lamone
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Streptopelia decaocto Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Trichomonas gallinae Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Streptopelia turtur. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/12/2017.