European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis


Aguilar, J.S. and Fernandez, G. 1999. Species action plan for the Mediterranean shag Phalacrocorax aristotelisdesmarestii in Europe. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

BirdLife International. 2000. The Development of Boundary Selection Criteria for the Extension of Breeding Seabird Special Protection Areas into the Marine Environment. OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. Vlissingen (Flushing).

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Carss, D. N. 1994. Killing of piscivorous birds at Scottish fin fish farms, 1984-1987. Biological Conservation 68: 181-188.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Kuiken, T. 1999. Review of Newcastle disease in Cormorants. Waterbirds 22(3): 333-347.

Nelson, J. B. 2005. Pelicans, cormorants and their relatives. Pelecanidae, Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Fregatidae, Phaethontidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Velando, A.; Freire, J. 2002. Population modelling of European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) at their southern limit: Conservation implications. Biological Conservation 107(1): 59-69.

Velando, A.; Munilla, I.; Leyenda, P. M. 2005. Short-term indirect effects of the 'Prestige' oil spill on European shags: changes in availability of prey. Marine Ecology Progress Series 302: 263-274.

Wanless, S., Harris, M.P. and Morris, J.A. 1991. Foraging range and feeding locations of shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis during chick rearing. Ibis 133: 30-36.

Wanless, S.; Harris, M. P. 1997. Phalacrocorax aristotelis Shag. Birds of the Western Palearctic Update 1(1): 3-13.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Media resources
Arkive species - Shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) 0

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax aristotelis. Downloaded from on 19/09/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 19/09/2018.