LC
European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 18,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 230,000-240,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 76,300-78,500 pairs, which equates to 153,000-157,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 26.4 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Austria V Extant
Belgium N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Iraq V Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Montenegro V Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria V Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Croatia North Part of Zadar Archipelago
Croatia Western Istrian Maritime Zone
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Streymoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Suduroy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vágar
France Archipel des Sept-Iles
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Cap Frehel
France Cap Sizun
France Détroit de Bonifaccio et Iles Lavezzi
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria
France Iles Cerbicale
France Iles Chausey
France Iles Sanguinaires
France Presqu'île de Crozon, Tas de Pois et Rochers du Toulinguet
Greece Gavdos and Gavdopoula islands, Crete
Greece Gulf of Kavala and marine region of Thasos island
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kythira island
Greece Mikres Kyklades and Amorgos marine area
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Samothraki island
Greece Saronikos Gulf islets
Greece Skiathos and Skopelos islands
Greece South Evvoïkos Gulf
Greece Zakynthos island
Iceland Breidafjördur
Iceland Krýsuvíkurberg
Iceland Látrabjarg
Ireland Blasket Islands
Ireland Horn Head cliffs
Ireland Inishduff
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Ireland Inishmurray
Ireland Inishtrahull
Ireland Lambay Island
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Saltee Islands
Ireland Skerries Islands
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula
Italy Cape Caccia and Conte port
Italy Cuglieri coast
Italy Features of the coast from Coghinas river-mouth to Cape Testa
Italy Maddalena archipelago and Cape Ferro
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu
Italy Pantelleria
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Norway Froan
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Kongsøy
Norway Lille Kamøya & Bondøya
Norway Røst
Norway Runde
Norway Sklinna
Slovenia Central Gulf of Trieste
Slovenia Debeli rtič
Slovenia Debeli rtič - Ankaran
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Slovenia Strunjan saltpans
Spain Aguas de Formentera y sur de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Norte de Mallorca
Spain Aguas del Norte y Oeste de Menorca
Spain Aguas del Sur de Mallorca y Cabrera
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Cape Freu-Cape Farrutx
Spain Cape Vermell
Spain Cíes islands
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Coastal cliffs between isles of Malgrats and Cala Figuera
Spain Columbretes islands
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Entorno marino de las rías Baixas
Spain Ferrolterra-Valdoviño coast
Spain Mar del Empordà
Spain Medas islands
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Ons islands
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Urdaibai - Matxitxako
Turkey Akkuş Island
Turkey Amasra Coast
Turkey Ayvalık
Turkey Bosphorus
Turkey Kozlu coast
Turkey Küre Mountains
Turkey Marmara Islands
Turkey Şile Coast
Ukraine Cape Uret
Ukraine Karadaz'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
United Kingdom Buchan Ness to Collieston Coast
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Canna and Sanday
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Isle of Man Sea Cliffs
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Sanda Island
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Shiant Isles
United Kingdom Sleibhtean Agus Chladach Thiriodh
United Kingdom Sule Skerry and Sule Stack
United Kingdom Treshnish Isles

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax aristotelis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2017.