European Shag Gulosus aristotelis


Aebischer, N.J. 1986. Retrospective investigation of an ecological disaster in the shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis: a general method based on long term marking. Journal of Animal Ecology 55: 613-630.

Aguilar, J.S. and Fernandez, G. 1999. Species action plan for the Mediterranean shag Phalacrocorax aristotelisdesmarestii in Europe. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

BirdLife International. 2000. The Development of Boundary Selection Criteria for the Extension of Breeding Seabird Special Protection Areas into the Marine Environment. OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. Vlissingen (Flushing).

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Coulson, J.C., Potts, G.R., Deans, I.R. and Fraser, S.M. 1968. Exceptional mortality of shags and other seabirds caused by paralytic shellfish poison. British Birds 61: 381-405.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Frederiksen, M., Daunt, F., Harris, M.P. and Wanless, S. 2008. The demographic impact of extreme events: stochastic weather drives survival and population dynamics in a long-lived seabird. Journal of Animal Ecology 77: 1020-1029.

Gunn, C.M., Newell, M., Burthe, S., Sturgeon, J., Grist, H., Reid, J., Harris, M.P., Wanless, S. and Daunt, F. 2014. A major wreck of European Shags in northeast Britain, winter 2012-2013. Poster presented by Carrie Gunn at The Seabird Group 12th International Conference at Merton College, University of Oxford, on 21-23 March 2014.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). 2016. European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis. Available at: (Accessed: 09.08.2018).

Nelson, J. B. 2005. Pelicans, cormorants and their relatives. Pelecanidae, Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Fregatidae, Phaethontidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Velando, A.; Freire, J. 2002. Population modelling of European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) at their southern limit: Conservation implications. Biological Conservation 107(1): 59-69.

Velando, A.; Munilla, I.; Leyenda, P. M. 2005. Short-term indirect effects of the 'Prestige' oil spill on European shags: changes in availability of prey. Marine Ecology Progress Series 302: 263-274.

Wanless, S., Harris, M.P. and Morris, J.A. 1991. Foraging range and feeding locations of shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis during chick rearing. Ibis 133: 30-36.

Wanless, S.; Harris, M. P. 1997. Phalacrocorax aristotelis Shag. Birds of the Western Palearctic Update 1(1): 3-13.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

IUCN SSC Cormorant Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Gulosus aristotelis. Downloaded from on 27/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/02/2024.