LC
European Shag Gulosus aristotelis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Following Kennedy and Spencer (2014) the genus Phalacrocorax has been divided into six genera, with P. aristotelis moved into Gulosus (HBW and BirdLife International 2018).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2018. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 3. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v3_Nov18.zip.
Kennedy, Martyn & Spencer, Hamish. 2014. Classification of the Cormorants of the World. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 79: 249-257.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 18,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 230,000-240,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 76,300-78,500 pairs, which equates to 153,000-157,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 26.4 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Austria V Extant
Belgium N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Iraq V Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Malta V Extant
Montenegro V Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria V Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Akrotiri cliffs
Cyprus Klidhes Islands
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Suduroy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Lítla Dímun
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Stóra Dímun
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Hestur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Svínoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Fugloy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vidoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kunoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kalsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Eysturoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Streymoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vágar
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
North Macedonia Lake Ohrid
Cyprus Cape Greco
Cyprus Cape Aspro
Portugal Berlenga and Farilhões islands
Iceland Breidafjördur
Ireland Lambay Island
Ireland Saltee Islands
Ireland Puffin Island
Ireland Blasket Islands
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Cliffs of Moher
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Clare Island cliffs
Ireland Duvillaun Islands
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Ireland Illaunmaistir (Oilean Maistir)
Ireland Inishmurray
Ireland Inishduff
Ireland Horn Head cliffs
Ireland Inishtrahull
Ireland Old Head of Kinsale
Ireland Howth Head
Turkey Şile Coast
Turkey Foça Peninsula
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Akkuş Island
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Saria island and northern Karpathos
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Kythira island
Greece Ikaria island
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mikres Kyklades island complex
Greece Samothraki island
Greece Mount Pilio
Greece Zakynthos island
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Greece Gramvousa peninsula and Gramvouses and Pontikonisi islets, Crete
Greece Karpathian sea islets
Greece Gavdos and Gavdopoula islands, Crete
Norway Sklinna
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Coastal cliffs between isles of Malgrats and Cala Figuera
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Cape Vermell
Spain Cape Freu-Cape Farrutx
Spain Cape Pinar
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain La Mola of Formentera
Spain Cala Salada - Illa d'en Calders
Spain Chafarinas Islands
Spain Medas islands
Spain Urdaibai - Matxitxako
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Ons islands
Spain Cíes islands
Spain Portios islets - Conejera island - Mouro islet
Spain Tina Menor-Sarnosa island-Oyambre
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Islets Vedrá and Vedranell
Spain Tagomago island
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles
Spain Cape Barbaria
Spain Islets of Santa Eulalia, Redona and Es Canar (Ibiza)
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Ribadesella-Tina Mayor
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Ferrolterra-Valdoviño coast
Spain Columbretes islands
Spain Alicante islets
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Cape Uret
Ukraine Karadaz'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
France Falaise du Bessin
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Iles Chausey
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Archipel des Glénan
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Cap Gris-nez
France Iles Marseillaises: Maire, Jarron, Jarre, Riou, Calseraigne, Congloue et Pomègues
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Archipel des Sept-Iles
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Archipel de Molène
France Cap Sizun
France Ile d'Ouessant
France Cap Frehel
France Presqu'île de Crozon, Tas de Pois et Rochers du Toulinguet
France Détroit de Bonifaccio et Iles Lavezzi
France Iles Cerbicale
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria
France Iles Sanguinaires
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri
United Kingdom Ailsa Craig
United Kingdom Buchan Ness to Collieston Coast
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Cape Wrath
United Kingdom Copinsay
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Flamborough Head and Bempton Cliffs
United Kingdom Flannan Isles
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Fowlsheugh
United Kingdom Glannau Aberdaron and Ynys Enlli
United Kingdom Glannau Ynys Gybi/Holy Island Coast
United Kingdom Grassholm
United Kingdom Handa
United Kingdom Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Marwick Head
United Kingdom Mingulay and Berneray
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Mousa
United Kingdom North Colonsay and Western Cliffs
United Kingdom North Rona and Sula Sgeir
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom Noss
United Kingdom Papa Stour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Pembrokeshire Cliffs
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Priest Island
United Kingdom Rathlin Island
United Kingdom Rum
United Kingdom Sanda Island
United Kingdom Sheep Island
United Kingdom Shiant Isles
United Kingdom Skokholm and Skomer
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom St Abbs Head to Fast Castle
United Kingdom St Kilda
United Kingdom Sule Skerry and Sule Stack
United Kingdom Sumburgh Head
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Treshnish Isles
United Kingdom Troup, Pennan and Lion Heads
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Auskerry
United Kingdom Canna and Sanday
United Kingdom Cardigan Island
United Kingdom Eilean nan Ron
United Kingdom Faray and Holm of Faray
United Kingdom Gigha Island and Islets
United Kingdom Little Cumbrae Island
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom North Westray Coast
United Kingdom Rothiesholm Peninsula, Stronsay
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast
United Kingdom South Walls and Switha
United Kingdom Tolsta Head, Lewis
United Kingdom Calf of Man
United Kingdom Isle of Man Sea Cliffs
Italy Pantelleria and Isole Pelagie
Italy Cuglieri coast
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari
Italy Cape Caccia and Conte port
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula
Italy Maddalena archipelago and Cape Ferro
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu
Italy Colostrai pool
Italy Capes and islands of south-eastern Sardinia
Italy Cape San Marco
Italy Features of the coast between Cape Teulada and Cape Pula
Italy Coastal stretches from Coghinas river-mouth to Cape Testa
Italy Argentario
Italy Ponziane islands
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Ireland Skerries Islands
Russia (European) Gavrilovski archipelago
Norway Runde
Norway Vega archipelago
Norway Røst
Norway Gjesværstappan
Norway Kongsøy
Norway Hornøy and Reinøy
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Froan
Greece Tokmakia islets, Lesvos
Germany Sennelager training area
Ireland Aughris Head
Ireland Tormore Island
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park
Croatia Prvic island
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserves on Cres island
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserve on Krk island
Croatia Neretva Delta
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Turkey Saros Bay
Turkey Central Black Sea Coast
Turkey Marmara Islands
Turkey Ayvalık
Turkey Candarli Islands
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Bodrum Islands
Turkey Datça and Bozburun Peninsula
Turkey Besadalar
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
France Littoral Augeron
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Rade de Lorient
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Iles d'Hyères
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Ilôts de Trévorc'h
United Kingdom Sleibhtean Agus Chladach Thiriodh
Ukraine Khersonesko-Fiolentske coastal zone
Sweden Weather Islands
Turkey Sinop Peninsula
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Turkey Kozlu coast
Turkey Bosphorus
Croatia North Part of Zadar Archipelago
Croatia Western Istrian Maritime Zone
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy San Pietro and Sant'Antioco islands
Turkey Amasra Coast
Turkey Küre Mountains
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Ireland Ballysadare Bay
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland West Donegal coast
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Inishbofin and Inishshark (including Davillaun)
Ireland Wicklow Head
Ireland Ireland's Eye
Ireland Helvick Head
Slovenia Debeli rtič - Ankaran
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Slovenia Strunjan saltpans
Spain Entorno marino de las rías Baixas
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Spain Mar del Empordà
Spain Aguas de Formentera y sur de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Sur de Mallorca y Cabrera
Spain Aguas del Norte de Mallorca
Spain Aguas del Norte y Oeste de Menorca
Greece Diapontia islands (Othonoi, Ereikousa, Mathraki) and surrounding islets
Greece Gulf of Kavala and marine area of Thasos island
Greece Islets of western Limnos and cape Mourtzeflos
Greece Falkonera, Velopoula and Karavia islets
Greece Andros island and surrounding islets
Greece South Evvoikos Gulf
Greece Mikres Kyklades and Amorgos marine area
Greece Saronikos Gulf islets
Greece Skiathos and Skopelos islands
Portugal Berlengas
Iceland Látrabjarg
Iceland Krýsuvíkurberg
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Norway Lista wetland system
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
Norway Nykvåg
Norway Lille Kamøya & Bondøya
Norway Anda
Slovenia Debeli rtič - Ankaran
Slovenia Central Gulf of Trieste
Slovenia Izola-Semedela
Turkey Tahtalı Mountains
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Serifos island
Greece Western Milos, Antimilos and Polyaigos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Anafi island
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Dia island, Crete
Italy Isole Pelagie
Italy Northern Sardinia

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Gulosus aristotelis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/06/2020.