LC
European Roller Coracias garrulus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2015 Least Concern
2012 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 146 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 19,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 29,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.6 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 75,000-158,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The European population is thought to hold around 40% of the global breeding range; therefore a very approximate estimate of the global population is 188,000-395,000 mature individuals or 282,000-593,000 individuals. The species is here placed in the band 100,000-499,999 mature individuals and 200,000-600,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The species was previously thought to be undergoing sharp declines in Europe. However, new data compiled for the 2015 European Red List of Birds suggests that the population is declining at a less severe rate than feared, with the breeding population decreasing by c. 5-20% over three generations (BirdLife International 2015). Negative trends are still reported for northern European populations such as Lithuania as well as Latvia, Poland, Belarus and Estonia (L. Raudonikis in litt. 2015). Also many national populations in central and eastern Europe are in decline (BirdLife International 2015). Some southern European populations have also declined: in the past century, the species has gone extinct in Germany, Denmark, Sweden (Snow and Perrins 1998) and Finland (Avilés et al. 1999), possibly due to habitat loss as a result of agricultural intensification (Snow and Perrins 1998). In Central Europe, extinctions occurred in some areas around 25 years ago with no evidence of recolonization (M. Vogrin in litt. 2015).
The species is thought to be relatively common in Tajikistan (D. Ewbank in litt. 2015) and in Central Asia (Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Krygystan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan). An analysis of observations of the species in these countries suggests that a strong or moderate decline is unlikely, whilst a weaker decline cannot be excluded due to limitations in the data (R. Ayé in litt. 2015). The species is considered common in Uzbekistan; however significant habitat loss has occurred suggesting the species may be declining (R. Kashkarov in litt. 2015). Populations in the Middle East have not apparently exhibited declines. Considering new information from Central Asia, which suggests the species has not declined significantly, and assuming that populations in the Middle East and north-west Africa have also not declined significantly since they were last assessed, the global population is not thought to be undergoing significant declines.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Comoros V Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malawi N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
San Marino U Extant Yes Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extinct Yes
Switzerland V Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo V Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
North Macedonia Kozhuf mountain and Boshava river
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Crna gorge
North Macedonia River Bregalnica
North Macedonia Babuna gorge, Topolka gorge, and Crn Kamen
Serbia Bosutska forest
Azerbaijan Alazani river valley
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Akstafa-chai valley
Azerbaijan Astara-chai valley
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Ismailly area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Azerbaijan Samur Delta
Azerbaijan Shamkhor area
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Azerbaijan Vilajchai valley
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Dzukija National Park
Cyprus Karpas Peninsula
Latvia Pape
Latvia Zile forest area
Portugal Vila Fernando
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Malcata mountains
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Romania Niculitel and Babadag forest
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Moldova Tigheci Forest
Moldova Hâncești Forest
Moldova Purcari - Etulia
Moldova Congaz – Taraclia Lakes
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Moldova Beech Land Forest
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Zegrzynski reservoir
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tyrnavos area
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Hungary Flood plain of Tiszaalpár
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Ecseg Pusztas of Dévaványa
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Heves Plain
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Hungary Szatmár-Bereg
Hungary Gerje-sik
Hungary Tápió valley
Russia (European) Khoper Nature Reserve
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Tabernas desert
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
France Montagne de la Clape
France Etang de Capestang
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etang de Thau
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Camargue
France Crau
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Plaine des Maures
France Bois de Palayson, du Rouet et de Malvoisin
France Domaine d'Orx
France Montagnes de Marcou, de l'Espinouse et du Caroux
Italy Rocca Busambra
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Gargano promontory
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Diaccia Botrona
Italy River Biferno
Italy Sicani mountains
Italy Litorale Romano
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Mount Pecoraro and Pizzo Cirina
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Georgia Iori Region
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Lithuania Sartai Regional Park and Rokiskis Fishponds
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Koiva-Mustjõe
Russia (European) Yuzhskoe lake-land
Latvia Garkalne forest
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Konush Reservoir
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Portugal Cuba
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Minervois
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Dono-Donetskoye flood-plain
Russia (European) Kletnyanski forest
Russia (European) Floodplain of Oka river up-stream of the Murom
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
North Macedonia Tikvesh Region
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex
Bulgaria Zlatiata
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Jordan Shaumari
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Uzbekistan Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Aktepe Reservoir and Three Lakes
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Vardanzi
Uzbekistan Dzhum-Dzhum
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Turkmenistan Nargyz
Italy Taro river
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Turkmenistan Ersarybaba - Akkyr
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Tajikistan Mogoltau massif
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tajikistan Kattasay and Daganasay Reservoirs
Tajikistan Sarazm
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Sources of Kuna and Shisha rivers
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve
Russia (European) Krasnoarmeiskiye waste lands
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Poland Kozienicka Forest
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Uzbekistan Sarmysh Nature Park
Italy Mount Beigua
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Uzbekistan Middle reaches of the Sherabad River
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Turkmenistan Tejen
Russia (European) Taman'
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Russia (European) Orota depression
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Lebanon Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve
Lebanon Hima Anjar - Kfar Zabad
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Russia (European) Krasniy Les area
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland
Russia (European) Irgaklinski forest
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Russia (European) Salt lakes
Russia (European) Prikumskiye steppes
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Turkmenistan Garadegish
Turkmenistan Garabil
Turkmenistan Delili - Garajabatyr
Uzbekistan Zarafshan State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Slovenia Slovenske gorice
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park
Hungary Kaszáló Wood of Abony
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Croatia Hrvatsko Zagorje region
Slovakia Dolné Považie
Italy Uccellina mountains, Trappola marshes and Ombrone mouth
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Italy Murge
Italy Gravine
Italy Calanchi della Basilicata
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Altopiano di Campeda
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Germany Gohrischheide
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
North Macedonia Pelagonia
North Macedonia Taor Gorge
North Macedonia Ovche Pole
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Pentadaktylos Mountains
Cyprus Diarizos Valley
Iraq Dure
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Pis'myanskiye Gori area
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river
Russia (European) Severo-donetskaya
Russia (European) Prisyun'ski forest
Russia (European) Buninski forest
Russia (European) Ergeninskaya area
Russia (European) Vedeneevsk pine forest
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Ponds and forests near Maulbronn
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova
Romania Băneasa - Canaraua Fetei
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa
Romania Comana
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre
Romania Confluenţa Olt - Dunăre
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Denis Tepe
Romania Dumbrăveni - Plopeni
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Hunedoara Timişană
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Timiş river flood-plain
Romania Maglavit
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Radomir wood
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Roztocze
Poland Lower San River Valley
North Macedonia Lake Mantovo and river Lakavica
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Kazakhstan Zheltoranga
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Spain Ballobar-Candasnos
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain Middle section of river Guadalquivir reservoirs
Spain Carmona countryside
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain La Serena
Spain Sasos del Cinca Medio
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Panagia Stazousa River
Cyprus Ezousa Valley and Cliffs
Cyprus Cha Potami River
Cyprus Paramali River and Plateau
Cyprus Pentashoinos River
Cyprus Saramas Valley
Armenia Dsegh
Armenia Gndasar
Turkey Dicle Valley
Armenia Haghartsin
Armenia Jermook
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Niger Termit Mountains
Spain Baja Alcarria
Croatia Ravni Kotari
Kenya Mutitu Forest
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece River Axios
Greece Anthofyto area
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Thessaly plain
Greece Ioannina city
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Russia (European) Teberdinski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
India Simbalbara National Park
Serbia Negotinska krajina
Serbia Okanj I Rusanda
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Slatine srednjeg Banata

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Coracias garrulus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/05/2020.