European Roller Coracias garrulus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2015 Least Concern
2012 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency low
Land mass type Average mass 146 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 19,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 29,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.6 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 75,000-158,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The European population is thought to hold around 40% of the global breeding range; therefore a very approximate estimate of the global population is 188,000-395,000 mature individuals or 282,000-593,000 individuals. The species is here placed in the band 100,000-499,999 mature individuals and 200,000-600,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The species was previously thought to be undergoing sharp declines in Europe. However, new data compiled for the 2015 European Red List of Birds suggests that the population is declining at a less severe rate than feared, with the breeding population decreasing by c. 5-20% over three generations (BirdLife International 2015). Negative trends are still reported for northern European populations such as Lithuania as well as Latvia, Poland, Belarus and Estonia (L. Raudonikis in litt. 2015). Also many national populations in central and eastern Europe are in decline (BirdLife International 2015). Some southern European populations have also declined: in the past century, the species has gone extinct in Germany, Denmark, Sweden (Snow and Perrins 1998) and Finland (Avilés et al. 1999), possibly due to habitat loss as a result of agricultural intensification (Snow and Perrins 1998). In Central Europe, extinctions occurred in some areas around 25 years ago with no evidence of recolonization (M. Vogrin in litt. 2015).
The species is thought to be relatively common in Tajikistan (D. Ewbank in litt. 2015) and in Central Asia (Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Krygystan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan). An analysis of observations of the species in these countries suggests that a strong or moderate decline is unlikely, whilst a weaker decline cannot be excluded due to limitations in the data (R. Ayé in litt. 2015). The species is considered common in Uzbekistan; however significant habitat loss has occurred suggesting the species may be declining (R. Kashkarov in litt. 2015). Populations in the Middle East have not apparently exhibited declines. Considering new information from Central Asia, which suggests the species has not declined significantly, and assuming that populations in the Middle East and north-west Africa have also not declined significantly since they were last assessed, the global population is not thought to be undergoing significant declines.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant native
Angola extant native
Armenia extant native yes
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahrain extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant vagrant
Benin extant native
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Botswana extant native
Bulgaria extant native yes yes
Burkina Faso extant native
Burundi extant native
Cameroon extant native
Cape Verde extant vagrant
Central African Republic extant native
Chad extant native
China (mainland) extant native yes
Comoros extant vagrant
Congo extant native
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant native
Côte d'Ivoire extant native
Croatia extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant vagrant yes
Djibouti extant native
Egypt extant native
Eritrea extant native
Estonia extant native yes
Eswatini extant native
Ethiopia extant native
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Finland extant vagrant yes
France extant native yes yes
Gabon extant native
Gambia extant native
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes
Ghana extant native yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native
Greece extant native yes yes
Guinea-Bissau extant native
Hungary extant native yes
Iceland extant vagrant
India extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes yes
Iraq extant native yes yes
Ireland extant vagrant
Israel extant native yes
Italy extant native yes
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kenya extant native
Kuwait extant native yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes
Lesotho extant native
Libya extant native
Liechtenstein extant vagrant
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant vagrant
Malawi extant native
Mali extant native
Malta extant native
Mauritania extant native
Moldova extant native yes yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Morocco extant native
Mozambique extant native
Namibia extant native
Netherlands extant vagrant
Niger extant native yes
Nigeria extant native
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant vagrant yes yes
Oman extant native yes
Pakistan extant native yes
Palestine extant native yes yes
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Qatar extant native yes
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Rwanda extant native
San Marino extant uncertain yes yes
São Tomé e Príncipe extant vagrant
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Senegal extant native
Serbia extant native yes
Seychelles extant vagrant yes yes
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
Somalia extant native
South Africa extant native
South Sudan extant native yes
Spain extant native yes yes
Sudan extant native
Sweden extinct native yes
Switzerland extant vagrant yes
Syria extant native yes yes
Tajikistan extant native yes
Tanzania extant native
Togo extant vagrant
Tunisia extant native
Turkey extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Uganda extant native
Ukraine extant native yes yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes yes
United Kingdom extant vagrant
Uzbekistan extant native yes
Western Sahara extant native
Yemen extant native yes
Zambia extant native
Zimbabwe extant native

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Zlatiata
Croatia Ravni Kotari
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Cha Potami River
Cyprus Diarizos Valley
Cyprus Ezousa Valley and Cliffs
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain
Cyprus Panagia Stazousa River
Cyprus Paramali River and Plateau
Cyprus Pentadaktylos Mountains
Cyprus Pentashoinos River
Cyprus Saramas Valley
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
France Camargue
France Crau
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Plaine des Maures
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Ponds and forests near Maulbronn
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Gerje-sik
Hungary Heves Plain
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Calanchi della Basilicata
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Gravine
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Italy Litorale Romano
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Murge
Italy River Biferno
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Latvia Garkalne forest
Lithuania Dzukija National Park
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex
Moldova Purcari - Etulia
Montenegro Ulcinj saltpans
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
North Macedonia Lake Mantovo and river Lakavica
North Macedonia Ovche Pole
North Macedonia Pelagonia
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
North Macedonia Tikvesh Region
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Cuba
Portugal Malcata mountains
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão
Portugal Vila Fernando
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Băneasa - Canaraua Fetei
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului
Romania Comana
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre
Romania Confluenţa Olt - Dunăre
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Denis Tepe
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Dumbrăveni - Plopeni
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Hunedoara Timişană
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Maglavit
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Radomir wood
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea
Romania Timiş river flood-plain
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Irgaklinski forest
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park
Russia (European) Taman'
Russia (European) Teberdinski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Serbia Negotinska krajina
Serbia Okanj I Rusanda
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Slatine srednjeg Banata
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Slovakia Dolné Považie
Slovenia Slovenske gorice
Spain Baja Alcarria
Spain Ballobar-Candasnos
Spain Carmona countryside
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain La Serena
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Middle section of river Guadalquivir reservoirs
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain Sasos del Cinca Medio
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tajikistan Kattasay and Daganasay Reservoirs
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Tajikistan Mogoltau massif
Tajikistan Sarazm
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Nargyz
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Turkmenistan Tejen
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
Uzbekistan Aktepe Reservoir and Three Lakes
Uzbekistan Dzhum-Dzhum
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Middle reaches of the Sherabad River
Uzbekistan Sarmysh Nature Park
Uzbekistan Vardanzi
Uzbekistan Zarafshan State Nature Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Coracias garrulus. Downloaded from on 04/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/06/2023.