European Roller Coracias garrulus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2015 Least Concern
2012 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 146.0 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 28,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.6 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 75,000-158,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The European population is thought to hold around 40% of the global breeding range therefore a very approximate estimate of the global population is 188,000-395,000 mature individuals or 282,000-593,000 individuals. Here placed in the band 100,000-499,999 mature individuals and 200,000-600,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The species was previously thought to be undergoing sharp declines in Europe, however new data compiled for the 2015 European Red List of Birds suggests that the population is declining at a less severe rate, with the breeding population decreasing by c. 5-20% over three generations (16.8 years) (however many national populations in central and eastern Europe are still declining) (BirdLife International 2015). Negative trends are still reported for northern European populations such as Lithuania as well as Latvia, Poland, Belarus and Estonia (L. Raudonikis in litt. 2015). Some southern European populations have also declined: in the past century, the species has gone extinct in Germany, Denmark, Sweden (Snow & Perrins, 1998) and Finland (Avilés et al. 1999), possibly due to habitat loss as a result of agricultural intensification (Snow & Perrins 1998). In Central Europe, extinctions occurred in some areas around 25 years ago with no evidence of recolonization (M. Vogrin in litt. 2015).

It is thought to be relatively common in Tajikistan (D. Ewbank in litt. 2015) and in Central Asia (Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Krygystan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) an analysis of observations of this species suggests that a strong or moderate decline is unlikely whilst a weaker decline cannot be excluded due to limitations in the data (R. Ayé in litt. 2015). The species is considered common in Uzbekistan by ornithologists however significant habitat loss has occurred suggesting the species may be declining (R. Kashkarov in litt. 2015). Populations in the Middle East have not apparently exhibited declines. Europe holds approximately 40% of the global breeding range, considering new information from Central Asia which suggests the species has not declined significantly and assuming that populations in the Middle East and north-west Africa have also not declined significantly since they were last assessed, the population is not thought to be undergoing significant declines.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Comoros V Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malawi N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
San Marino U Extant Yes Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extinct Yes
Switzerland V Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo V Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Zlatiata
Croatia Ravni Kotari
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Cha Potami River
Cyprus Diarizos Valley
Cyprus Ezousa Valley and Cliffs
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain
Cyprus Panagia Stazousa River
Cyprus Paramali River and Plateau
Cyprus Pentadaktylos Mountains
Cyprus Pentashoinos River
Cyprus Saramas Valley
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
France Camargue
France Crau
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Plaine des Maures
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Ponds and forests near Maulbronn
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Gerje-sik
Hungary Heves Plain
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Calanchi della Basilicata
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Gravine
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Italy Litorale Romano
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Murge
Italy River Biferno
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Latvia Garkalne forest
Lithuania Dzukija National Park
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex
Moldova Purcari - Etulia
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
North Macedonia Lake Mantovo and river Lakavica
North Macedonia Ovche Pole
North Macedonia Pelagonia
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
North Macedonia Tikvesh Region
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Cuba
Portugal Malcata mountains
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão
Portugal Vila Fernando
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Băneasa - Canaraua Fetei
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului
Romania Comana
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre
Romania Confluenţa Olt - Dunăre
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Denis Tepe
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Dumbrăveni - Plopeni
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Hunedoara Timişană
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Maglavit
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Radomir wood
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea
Romania Timiş river flood-plain
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Irgaklinski forest
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park
Russia (European) Taman'
Russia (European) Teberdinski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Slovakia Dolné Považie
Slovenia Slovenske gorice
Spain Baja Alcarria
Spain Ballobar-Candasnos
Spain Carmona countryside
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Ecija-Osuna plain
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain La Serena
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Middle section of river Guadalquivir reservoirs
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley)
Spain Sasos del Cinca Medio
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tajikistan Kattasay and Daganasay Reservoirs
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Tajikistan Mogoltau massif
Tajikistan Sarazm
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Nargyz
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Turkmenistan Tejen
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
Uzbekistan Aktepe Reservoir and Three Lakes
Uzbekistan Dzhum-Dzhum
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Middle reaches of the Sherabad River
Uzbekistan Sarmysh Nature Park
Uzbekistan Vardanzi
Uzbekistan Zarafshan State Nature Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Coracias garrulus. Downloaded from on 15/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 15/11/2019.