LC
European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 33,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 19,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3000000-5999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.6 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 614,000-1,100,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 1,230,000-2,200,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c. 40% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 3,100,000-5,500,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 3,000,000-5,999,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction, pesticide use reducing the availability of food, and disturbance (del Hoyo et al. 1999). In Europe the population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant
Mali V Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Swaziland N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Belarus Polesye valley of river Buh
Belgium Gebieden gelegen te Peer en Hechtel-Eksel
Belgium Gebieden ten noorden van Turnhout en Ravels
Belgium Kalmthoutse Heide
Belgium Sinémurienne
Belgium Vallei van de Zwarte Beek
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Croatia Middle Dalmatian Islands and Peljesac Penninsula
Cyprus Adelphoi Forest - Papoutsa
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Kormakitis Peninsula
Cyprus Mahairas Forest - Tzionia
Cyprus Pafos Forest
Czech Republic Bzenecka Doubrava-Straznicke Pomoravi
Czech Republic Ceskolipsko - Dokeské pískovce sandstones and wetlands
Czech Republic Doupov hills
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Soomaa
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Finland Nuuksio
France Arjuzanx
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux
France Basses Corbières
France Brenne centrale
France Brenne: Forêt de Lancosme
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Forêt de Haguenau
France Forêts du Perche
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Hautes Corbières
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Les Couzes Nord
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Montagne de la Clape
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Plateau Ardennais
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Vallée du Régino
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Annaburger Heide
Germany Bienwald and Viehstrichwiesen
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Danube valley between Neuburg and Ingolstadt
Germany Davert
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Dune and aeolian sand area Dudenhofen, Babenhausen, Seligenstadt
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Engdener Wüste
Germany Glücksburger Heide
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Griese Gegend
Germany Haardtrand
Germany Hauberge near Haiger
Germany Heathlands and Forests in Tauberland
Germany Heathlands of Lieberose-Staakow-Reicherskreuz
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Lorsch forest and Vierheim heathland
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Manteler Forst
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Military training area Bergen-Hohne
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Germany Mittleres Wietingsmoor
Germany Northern Karlsruhe Hardt
Germany Nürnberger Reichswald
Germany Offenbacher Wald, Bellheimer Wald and Queichwiesen
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Pressel wooded heath and mire
Germany Retzower Heide
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Schwetzinger and Hockenheimer Hardt
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Speyerer Wald, Nonnenwald and Bachauen between Geinsheim and Hanhofen
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Ueckermünder Heide
Germany Vorderer Steigerwald - Windsheimer Bucht - Steigerwald-Vorland
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Wurzacher Ried
Italy Albegna river valley
Italy Arezzo heathlands
Italy Carso
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Mount Grappa
Italy Piave river
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy Sibillini mountains
Italy Ticino river
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Lithuania Asveja Regional Park
Lithuania Dzukija National Park
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex
Netherlands Brabantse Wal
Netherlands De Utrecht
Netherlands Leenderbos, Groote Heide & De Plateaux
Netherlands Maasduinen
Netherlands Veluwe
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Forest at Gwda River
Poland Janów forests
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Lukow Forests
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Tuchola Forest
Portugal Tejo estuary
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei
Romania Cursul Mijlociu al Someşului
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Russia (European) Kilemarski Reserve
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Slovakia Bukovské hills
Slovakia Laborecka upland
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Slovenia Banjšice plateau
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Sweden Tärnan – Riala
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Velyka Osokorovka
United Kingdom Ashdown Forest
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Cannock Chase
United Kingdom Dorset Heaths and Forests
United Kingdom East Devon Heaths
United Kingdom Exmoor Coast and Heaths
United Kingdom Haldon Forest
United Kingdom Laughton Forest
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom New Forest
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Sherwood Forest
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Thames Basin Heaths
United Kingdom Thorne and Hatfield Moors
United Kingdom Wealden Heaths

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Caprimulgus europaeus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/03/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/03/2019.