LC
European Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 18,200,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 23,900,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 290000 - 430000 mature individuals poor estimated 2018
Population trend stable - suspected -
Generation length 8.46 years - - -

Population justification: Ferguson-Lees et al. (2001) estimated the population to number 100,000-1,000,000 individuals, with regional estimates suggesting between 10,000-15,000 pairs in France (Dubois et al. 2008), 1,850 in Spain (Palomino and Valls 2011), 8,000-11,000 in Belarus (Dombrovski and Ivanovski 2005) and 60,000-80,000 in European Russia (Galushin 2012). In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 120,000-175,000 breeding pairs, equating to 241,000-350,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep.). Europe forms approximately 82% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 294,000-427,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The global population size is likely much larger than this however, with an annual mean of 528,000 individuals (mostly adults) counted each year passing through the Batumi migratory bottleneck, with 180,000 individuals counted on a single day in 2012 (Hoekstra et al. 2020). Hence a revised global estimate is 290,000-430,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable (Orta et al. 2020). The European population is estimated to be decreasing by less than 3% in 25 years (three generations [BirdLife International in prep.]), but is stable in Russia, which accounts for almost half of the European breeding population (Galushin 2012)


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Albania extant native yes yes
Algeria extant native yes
Andorra extant native yes
Angola extant native yes
Armenia extant native yes yes
Austria extant native yes yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahrain extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes yes
Benin extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes yes
Botswana extant native yes
Bulgaria extant native yes yes
Burkina Faso extant vagrant yes
Burundi extant native yes
Cameroon extant native yes
Central African Republic extant native yes yes
Chad extant native yes yes
Congo extant native yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant native yes
Côte d'Ivoire extant native yes
Croatia extant native yes yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes yes
Djibouti extant native yes
Egypt extant native yes
Equatorial Guinea extant native yes
Eritrea extant native yes yes
Estonia extant native yes
Eswatini extant native yes
Ethiopia extant native yes yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Finland extant native yes
France extant native yes yes
Gabon extant native yes
Gambia extant native yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes yes
Ghana extant native yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Guinea extant native yes
Guinea-Bissau extant native yes
Hungary extant native yes yes
Iceland extant vagrant
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant vagrant
Israel extant native yes
Italy extant native yes yes
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes yes
Kenya extant native yes
Kuwait extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes
Liberia extant native yes
Libya extant native yes
Liechtenstein extant native yes
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Malawi extant native yes
Mali extant native yes
Malta extant native yes
Mauritania extant native yes
Moldova extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Morocco extant native yes
Mozambique extant native yes
Namibia extant native yes
Netherlands extant native yes yes
Niger extant native yes
Nigeria extant native yes
North Macedonia extant native yes yes
Norway extant native yes
Oman extant native yes
Palestine extant native yes
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes yes
Qatar extant native yes
Romania extant native yes yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes yes
Rwanda extant native yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Senegal extant native yes yes
Serbia extant native yes yes
Seychelles extant vagrant
Sierra Leone extant native yes
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes yes
Somalia extant vagrant yes
South Africa extant native yes
South Sudan extant native yes yes
Spain extant native yes yes
Sudan extant native yes yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes yes
Syria extant native yes
Tanzania extant native yes
Togo extant native yes
Tunisia extant native yes
Türkiye extant native yes yes
Uganda extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes
United Kingdom extant native yes yes
Uzbekistan extant vagrant
Western Sahara extant native yes
Yemen extant native yes
Zambia extant native yes
Zimbabwe extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Belgium Sinémurienne
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Lesse et Lomme
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Belgium Ronde Put
Spain La Demanda mountains
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Forêt domaniale de la Harth
France Forêt de Haguenau
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Forêts du Perche
France Plateau Ardennais
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Bassigny
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Brenne centrale
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Brenne: Forêt de Lancosme
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêt de Chaux
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Etang et Forêt de Villefermoy
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Hautes Corbières
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Forêt de Saou
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Pointe de Grave
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Pálava
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czechia Doupov hills
Germany Pressel wooded heath and mire
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Sächsische Schweiz National Park
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Märkische Schweiz
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany North-eastern lower Harz mountains
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Hula valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lisar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Estonia Otepää
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Lahemaa
Czechia Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko
Portugal Gerês mountains
Portugal Cabeção
Armenia Jermook
Armenia Mount Ara
Lithuania Adutiskis & Guntauninkai forest complex
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Persenk
Italy Piave river
Italy Mount Grappa
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Lake Solgen
Italy Stelvio National Park
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Italy Alto Garda Bresciano
United Kingdom New Forest
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån
Italy Ticino river
Italy Val d'Ossola
Italy Gran Paradiso
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Türkiye Kaz Mountains
Hungary Aggtelek Karst
Hungary North Bakony
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Slanské hills
Italy Arezzo heathlands
Italy Albegna river valley
Italy Sila Grande
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Spreewald
Germany Uckermark lake region
Germany Lucie and Landwehr
Germany Murnauer Moos and Loisach-Kochel-Moore
Germany Northern Steigerwald
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Schönbuch with Spitzberg
Germany Wutach ravine
Germany Sachsenwald
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Hildesheim forest
Germany Braunschweig sewage farms
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Randow-Welse-Bruch / Uckermärkische Agrarlandschaft
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Northern Danube valley and southern Riesalb
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Military training area Hohenfels
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Hoher Meißner/Plesse-Konstein
Germany Lower Gersprenz lowlands incl. Reinheim pond
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Middle Elbe valley with Steckby-Lödderitz forest
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Ahrgebirge
Germany Middle Rhine valley
Germany Middle and Lower Mosel
Germany Nahe valley
Germany Bienwald and Viehstrichwiesen
Germany Aukrug Nature Park
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Our
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc
Romania Trascău Mountains
Romania Piatra Şoimului - Scorţeni - Gârleni
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Romania Subcarpaţii Vrancei
Romania Vânători - Neamţ
Luxembourg Region Kiischpelt
Poland Sieniawa Forest
Lithuania Buda - Pravieniskes forest complex
Lithuania Plinksiai state Nature Reserve and its environs
Lithuania Zalioji & Gitenai forests complex
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex
Hungary Őrség
Lithuania Vainutas, Begedziai, Zasyciai & neighbouring forests complex
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Roztocze
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Spain Ancares mountains
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Riaño
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Urbión and Cebollera Mountain Ranges
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Mt Bilogora and Kalnik
Croatia Mount Velebit
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Netherlands Drents-Friese Wold & Leggelderveld
Netherlands Maasduinen
Netherlands Veluwe
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Kucaj-Beljanica
Serbia Valjevske mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Pernis apivorus. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/european-honey-buzzard-pernis-apivorus on 23/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 23/02/2024.