LC
European Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 23,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 280000-420000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.8 - - -

Population justification: Ferguson-Lees et al. (2001) estimated the population to number 100,000-1,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 118,000-171,000 breeding pairs, equating to 235,000-342,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 82% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 287,000-417,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. Hence a revised global estimate is 280,000-420,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be decreasing. In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 35.4 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant
Swaziland V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Jermook
Armenia Mount Ara
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Lesse et Lomme
Belgium Ronde Put
Belgium Sinémurienne
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Bulgaria Persenk
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Mount Velebit
Croatia Mt Bilogora and Kalnik
Czech Republic Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko
Czech Republic Doupov hills
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czech Republic Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czech Republic Pálava
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Otepää
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Bassigny
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Brenne centrale
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Brenne: Forêt de Lancosme
France Etang et Forêt de Villefermoy
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêt de Chaux
France Forêt de Haguenau
France Forêt de Saou
France Forêt domaniale de la Harth
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Forêts du Perche
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Hautes Corbières
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Plateau Ardennais
France Pointe de Grave
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
Hungary Aggtelek Karst
Hungary Bükk
Hungary North Bakony
Hungary Őrség
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lisar Protected Area
Israel Hula valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Italy Albegna river valley
Italy Apennines from Passo del Cerreto to Monte Caligi
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Ligurian Alps
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Matese
Italy Piave river
Italy River Biferno
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Val D'Ossola
Lithuania Adutiskis & Guntauninkai forest complex
Lithuania Buda - Pravieniskes forest complex
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park
Lithuania Plinksiai state Nature Reserve and its environs
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex
Lithuania Vainutas, Begedziai, Zasyciai & neighbouring forests complex
Lithuania Zalioji & Gitenai forests complex
Luxembourg Region Kiischpelt
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Our
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure
Netherlands Drents-Friese Wold & Leggelderveld
Netherlands Veluwe
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Roztocze
Poland Sieniawa Forest
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Solska Forest
Portugal Cabeção
Portugal Gerês mountains
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Romania Piatra Şoimului - Scorţeni - Gârleni
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Romania Subcarpaţii Vrancei
Romania Trascău Mountains
Romania Vânători - Neamţ
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Volovské hills
Spain Ancares mountains
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain La Demanda mountains
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Riaño
Spain Urbión and Cebollera Mountain Ranges
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån
Turkey Kaz Mountains
United Kingdom New Forest

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Pernis apivorus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2018.