European Herring Gull Larus argentatus


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Coulson, J. C. 2017. Re-Evaluation of the Role of Landfills and Culling in the Historic Changes in the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Population in Great Britain. Waterbirds 38(4): 339-354.

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del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

European Union, Directive 2009/147/EC. 2009. Directive of the European Parliament and the Council on the conservation of wild birds. Official Journal of the European Communities L20: 7-25.

Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

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Huppop. O. and Wurm, S. 2000. Effects of winter fishery activities on resting numbers, food and body condition of large gulls Larus argentatus and L-marinus in the south-eastern North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 194: 241-247.

Klein, R. 1994. Silbermöwen Larus argentatus und Weisskopfmöwen Larus cachinnans auf Mülldeponien in Mecklenburg - erste Ergebnisse einer Ringfundanalyse . Vogelwelt 115: 267-286.

Newton, I. and Little, B. 2009. Assessment of wind-farm and other bird casualties from carcasses found on a Northumbrian beach over an 11-year period. Bird Study 56(2): 158-167.

Nogales, M., Zonfrillo, B. and Monaghan, P. 1995. Diets of adult and chick herring gulls Larus argentatus argentatus on Ailsa Craig, south-west Scotland. Seabird 17: 56-63.

Pons, J. M., Migot. P. 1995. Life-history strategy of the herring gull: changes in survival and fecundity in a population subjected to various feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology 64: 592-599.

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Scopel, L. C. and Diamond, A. W. 2017. The case for lethal control of gulls on seabird colonies. The Journal of Wildlife Management 81: 572-580.

Sell, M., Vogt., T. 1986. [Ecology of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) wintering inland: selection and attachment of feeding and roosting sites in the Ruhr region.]. Vogelwarte5 107: 18-3.

Shamoun-Baranes, J., van Loon, E. 2006. Energetic influence on gull flight strategy selection. Journal of Experimental Biology 209(18): 3489-3498.

Sibley, R. M., McCleery, R. H. 1983. Increase in weight of herring gulls while feeding. Journal of Animal Ecology 52: 35-50.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Spaans, A. L. 1971. On the feeding ecology of the Herring Gull Larus argentatus Pont, in the Northern part of the Netherlands. Ardea 59(3-4): 98-188.

Wetlands International. 2014. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Witt, H-H., Crespo, J., de Juana, E. & Varela, J. 1981. Comparative feeding ecology of Audouin’s Gull Larus audouinii and the Herring Gull L. argentatus in the Mediterranean. Ibis 123: 519–526.

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Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus argentatus. Downloaded from on 29/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 29/10/2020.