LC
European Greenfinch Chloris chloris



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Chloris chloris (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Carduelis following AERC TAC (2003); Christidis and Boles (2008); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993); SACC (2005 and updates); Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993); Turbott (1990).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 26 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 23,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 25,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 48000000-74000000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 21,600,000-33,100,000 pairs, which equates to 43,200,000-66,100,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.90% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 48,000,000-74,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was stable (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Argentina I Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay I Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Romania Satchinez marsh
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Reka valley
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Thrypti and Orno mountains, Crete
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Mounts Agia Dynati and Kokkini Rachi, Kefalonia
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Russia (European) Racheyski forest
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest
Russia (European) Zhigulevski Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
France Marais de Sacy
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Vico lake
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Serbia Zlot gorge--Dubasnica
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Lobau
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Machland
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Montenegro Biogradska woods
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
France Pointe de Grave
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sarani
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khabr-va-Rouchoon Wildlife Refuge
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable breeding
Forest Boreal suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Chloris chloris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2021.