LC
European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Carduelis carduelis and C. caniceps (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as C. carduelis following AERC TAC (2003); AOU (1998 & supplements); Christidis & Boles (2008); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); SACC (2005 & updates); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993); Turbott (1990).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 16 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 26,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 25,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 101000000-155000000 poor estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 27.8-42.7 million pairs, which equates to 55.7-85.5 million mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.55% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 101-155 million mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe, the population has undergone a moderate increase between 1980 and 2013 (EBCC 2018). However, the species is in rapid decline in North Africa where poaching for the cagebird trade has been increasing rapidly since the 1990s (E. de Juana in litt. 2017, A. Ngari in litt. 2017). By now, the species has disappeared from >50% of its range in North Africa (Khelifa et al. 2017). Therefore globally, the species is assessed as being in decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Argentina I Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) I Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brazil I Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cape Verde I Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay I Extant Yes
USA I Possibly Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Ponta de São Lourenço
Romania Satchinez marsh
Poland Pisz forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Strofades islets
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Kedros and Kourtaliotiko gorge, Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Northern Sifnos
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Mount Peristeri
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Mounts Agia Dynati and Kokkini Rachi, Kefalonia
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Agrafa mountains
Greece Artemisio and Lyrkeio mountains
Greece Mount Kyllini (Ziria)
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Spain Ventejís mountain
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Montagne de la Serre
France Pointe de Grave
France Marais de Sacy
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Col de l'Escrinet
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Machland
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Lebanon Lower Damour River
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Carduelis carduelis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/11/2020.