LC
European Bee-eater Merops apiaster



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 56.59999847 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 55,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 12,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 14000000-25999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.5 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 2,800,000-5,050,000 pairs, which equates to 5,600,000-10,100,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 40% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 14,000,000-25,250,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: Declines may be occurring in parts of the range owing to loss of suitable prey due to widespread application of pesticides, loss of nesting sites through canalisation of rivers, increasing agricultural efficiency and establishment of monocultures, development of wilderness areas and shooting for sport, for food and because it is considered a crop pest (Fry and Boesman 2014). The population trend in Europe from 1989-2013 was uncertain (EBCC 2015), however the short-term trend is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015). The population in South Africa appears to be declining (Fry and Boesman 2014).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Madagascar V Extant
Malawi N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Swaziland N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Stenata
Bulgaria Zlatiata
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Ile de la Platière
France Plaine des Maures
France Vallée du Régino
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mounts Kato Olympos and Ossa, and Tembi ravine
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Italy Litorale Romano
Russia (European) Bryansko-Zhizdrinskoye woodland
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Titelski breg
Spain Bajo Alcanadre-Serreta de Tramaced
Spain Ceuta
Spain Cinca river rice fields and steppe area
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Enguera mountain range-La Canal de Navarrés
Spain La Safor and North Alicante mountain ranges
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Marina mountain ranges
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons
Spain Turia canyon and Los Serranos
Ukraine Agricultural lands near Bilorets'ke (Chornozemne village)
Ukraine Berezans'kyj lyman and Solonets Tuzly pond
Ukraine Gajchur river valley
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar)
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kajiry village)
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Vasylivka village)
Ukraine Karachunivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Tsybul'kivs'ki lakes
Ukraine Velyka Osokorovka

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Merops apiaster. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2017.