Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 36 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 38,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 56,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3000000-7199999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.5 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 674,000-1,600,000 pairs, which equates to 1,350,000-3,200,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 45% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 3,000,000-7,100,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 3,000,000-7,199,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population has suffered a long term reduction in numbers and range since the mid 19th century in west and central Europe owing to increased rain during the breeding season caused by climatic changes, agricultural improvement, loss of orchards and unimproved meadows, replacement of hardwoods with conifer plantations and widespread over-use of pesticides and herbicides (del Hoyo et al. 2002). In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015). In the short-term (2000-2012) the European population is estimated to have increased (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bhutan V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Central African Republic V Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea V Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Mali V Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo V Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Planina polje
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Slovenia Reka valley
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Goričko
Slovenia Karst
Sweden Kullaberg
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Dannemora
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Hungary Szatmár-Bereg
Russia (European) Racheyski forest
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Sura river
Russia (European) Zhigulevski Nature Reserve
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
France Montagne de la Serre
France Vallée du Régino
France Plaine des Maures
United Kingdom Glen Affric to Strathconon
United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest
United Kingdom Loch Maree
United Kingdom Loch Vaa
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Piave river
Italy Taro river
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Pools of Florence plain
Italy Apennines from Passo del Cerreto to Monte Caligi
Italy Middle course of River Brenta
Italy Farma valley
Italy Val Grande
Czechia Pálava
Czechia Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko
Czechia Lednicke rybniky ponds (Lednice fish-ponds)
Czechia Beskydy mountains
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czechia Doupov hills
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Valjevske mountains
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Veľká Fatra
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Morava
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovakia Tríbeč
Slovakia Bukovské hills
Slovakia Poiplie
Slovakia Poľana
Slovakia Lešť
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Spišská Magura
Slovakia Vihorlat
Slovakia Muránska plateau and Stolické hills
Slovakia Burda
Serbia Vlasina
Serbia Jerma
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Serbia Zlot gorge--Dubasnica
Serbia Resava gorge
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Wachau
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Machland
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Unterlammer hill country
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Slope forests in the Klostertal
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Bregaglia valley
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn
Switzerland Lowlands of Zurich and lower valley of the river Thur
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt
Switzerland Aletsch region
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Simplon region
Switzerland Maggia valley
Switzerland Bolle di Magadino
Switzerland Mont Tendre
Switzerland La Brévine and Les Ponts-de-Martel
Switzerland Generoso mountain
Switzerland River Rhone: Geneva to Verbois reservoir
Switzerland 'Grosses Moos' plain and Niederried reservoir
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Plothen ponds
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Spreewald
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Pressel wooded heath and mire
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Orchard landscape between Hohenstaufen and Teck in the mid-Albvorland
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Vorderer Steigerwald - Windsheimer Bucht - Steigerwald-Vorland
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany North-eastern lower Harz mountains
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Gladenbach mountains east of Herborn
Germany Lorsch forest and Vierheim heathland
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Northern Karlsruhe Hardt
Germany Schönbuch with Spitzberg
Germany Orchards and vineyards between Waldhausen and Geradstetten
Germany Kaiserstuhl
Ukraine Gomol'shans'ka forest
Russia (European) Bryansko-Zhizdrinskoye woodland
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Les Couzes Nord
France Les Couzes Sud
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Domaine d'Orx
France Forêt de Jugny
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Bassigny
France Brenne centrale
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Mars sur Allier
France Forêts domaniales de Corse
France Vallée d'Asco
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or
France Forêt de Chaux
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Plateau de Delme, Val de Petite Seille
France Forêt de la Reine
France Hautes Corbières
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Massif des Albères
France Gorges du Gardon
France Minervois
France Massif du Madres et Mont Coronat
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Montagnes de Marcou, de l'Espinouse et du Caroux
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Iles d'Hyères
France Marais de Manteyer
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Forêt du Gavre
France Forêt de Saou
France Basse Ardêche
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Haut Giffre
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Freiwald
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Italy Lagorai mountains
Austria Karwendel
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Ukraine Krasnopols'kyj Forest
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Ticino river
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån
Italy Grigne
Italy Finalese
Italy Val d'Ossola
Italy Crava-Morozzo lakes
Italy Gran Paradiso
Slovenia Kozjansko - Jovsi
Slovenia Slovenske gorice
Netherlands Drents-Friese Wold & Leggelderveld
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Kevo
Finland Luosto
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Germany Lüneburger Heide
Germany Gildehauser Venn
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Stromberg
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Engdener Wüste
Germany Military training area Munster-Nord
Germany Großes Moor near Gifhorn
Germany Vorland of the Mittlere Schwäbische Alb
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Werra lowlands near Wanfried and Eschwege
Germany Hoher Meißner/Plesse-Konstein
Germany Mönchbruch of Mörfelden and Rüsselsheim and heath extensions (GG)
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Retzower Heide
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Aukrug Nature Park
Luxembourg Region of Schuttrange, Canach, Lenningen and Gostingen
Luxembourg Valley of Trintange
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Luxembourg Region of Junglinster
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Slovenia Kozjansko
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Estonia Kabli
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Kärevere
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Karula
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Misso

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Jynx torquilla. Downloaded from on 27/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/06/2022.