LC
Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Mareca penelope (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Anas.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 34,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 119,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,800,000-3,300,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 469,000-645,000 pairs, which equates to 937,000-1,290,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable or increasing (Wetlands International 2015). The population trend is increasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007) and the European trend is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Canada V Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti V Extant
Dominica V Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Haiti V Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands V Extant
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico V Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea V Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela V Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Lalzi Bay
Albania Narta Lagoon
Algeria Barrage de la Cheffia
Algeria Lac Fetzara
Algeria Lac Oubeïra
Algeria Marais de Mekhada
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Egypt Lake Burullus
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Väinameri
Finland Oulu region wetlands
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Camargue
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
India Bahour Lake
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Ousteri Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Ireland Lough Foyle
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Japan Lake Biwako
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Lakes Komuke and Shibunotsunai
Japan Lower Yoshinogawa river
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Morocco Merja Zerga
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Broekvelden, Vettenbroek & Polder Stein
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Groote Wielen
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland, Oostzanerveld & Twiske
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Polder Zeevang
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Wormer- en Jisperveld & Kalverpolder
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Reisa
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
Poland Biebrza river valley
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Portugal Tejo estuary
Romania Danube Delta
Russia (Asian) Abyy lowland
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression)
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kataiginskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kornilovsky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya
Russia (European) Bulgarski
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Issinski
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Surski reservoir
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Santoña marshes
Sri Lanka Giants Tank
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Turkey Burdur Lake
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Ukraine Syvash Bay
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom The Swale
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Named species - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Mareca penelope. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2019.