LC
Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Mareca penelope (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Anas.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 34,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 119,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,800,000-3,300,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 469,000-645,000 pairs, which equates to 937,000-1,290,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable or increasing (Wetlands International 2015). The population trend is increasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007) and the European trend is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Canada V Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti V Extant
Dominica V Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Haiti V Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands V Extant
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico V Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea V Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela V Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Beresina
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Käina bay
Estonia Väike Väin strait
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Latvia Engure lake
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Fizes valley
Iceland Öxarfjördur
Iceland Mývatn-Laxá
Iceland Vestmannsvatn
Iceland Svarfadardalur
Iceland Lónsfjördur
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Lough Owel
Ireland River Suck callows: Shannon Bridge-Castlecoote
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland North Wicklow coastal marshes
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland Bannow Bay
Ireland Tramore Backstrand
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland River Blackwater callows
Ireland Blackwater estuary
Ireland Ballymacoda
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Castlemaine Harbour
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Ireland Lough Gill
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Ballyallia lake
Ireland Rahasane turlough
Ireland Killala Bay
Ireland Cummeen Strand (Sligo Harbour)
Ireland Drumcliff Bay and Ballintemple
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Trawbreaga Bay
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Kilcolman bog
Ireland Lough Carra
Ireland Lough Mask
Ireland The Gearagh and the Iniscarra reservoir
Ireland Lough Ree
Ireland Lough Foyle
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Belgium Zwin
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Akyatan Lake
Turkey Agyatan Lake
Turkey Yumurtalik lagoons
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Lake Kävsjön – Store Mosse
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Lundåkra Bight
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Sandemar
Sweden Dannemora
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Druzno lake
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Vistula river mouth
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Groote Wielen
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp
Netherlands Polder Zeevang
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland, Oostzanerveld & Twiske
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Dollard
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Hollands Diep
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Zoommeer
Netherlands Markiezaat
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Makkumer-and Kooiwaard
Netherlands Workumerwaard
Netherlands Steile Bank and Mokkebank
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Lake Veluwemeer
Netherlands Lake Gooimeer
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer
Netherlands IJssel: Deventer - Zwolle
Netherlands IJssel: Zwolle - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Leekstermeergebied
Netherlands Deelen
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken
Netherlands Terkaplesterpoelen and Akmarijp
Netherlands Witte en Zwarte Brekken
Netherlands Lake Fluessen, Vogelhoek and Morra
Netherlands Rottige Meenthe and Brandemeer
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Eilandspolder
Netherlands Wormer- en Jisperveld & Kalverpolder
Netherlands Nieuwkoopse Plassen & De Haeck
Netherlands Broekvelden, Vettenbroek & Polder Stein
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Russia (European) Koporski Bay
Russia (European) Kupy area
Russia (European) South-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Faustovo flood-plains of Moscow river
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas
Russia (European) Bulgarski
Russia (European) Surski reservoir
Russia (European) Valley complex of Moksha and Oka rivers
Russia (European) Shilovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Solotcha flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Oka valley in vicinity of Murmino
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Gallocanta lake
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Littoral Augeron
France Forêts du Perche
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etang des Landes
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Marais de Sacy
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cameron Reservoir
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Castle Loch, Lochmaben
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Drumochter Hills
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Flanders Moss and Lake of Menteith
United Kingdom Gladhouse Reservoir
United Kingdom Greenlaw Moor
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Holburn Lake and Moss
United Kingdom Hornsea Mere
United Kingdom Din Moss and Hoselaw Loch
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Inverpolly, Loch Urigill and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch Ken and Dee Marshes
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Kinnordy
United Kingdom Loch of Lintrathen
United Kingdom Loch of Skene
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Oire
United Kingdom Loch Ruthven
United Kingdom Loch Shin and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Loch Spynie
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Monadhliath
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Muir of Dinnet
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Rousay
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Walmore Common
United Kingdom Westwater Reservoir
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Cnuic Agus Cladach Mhuile
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Orbetello lagoon and Burano lake
Italy Palude e Tombolo di Bolgheri
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Laga mountains
Italy Vico lake
Italy Lake Bracciano and surrounding areas
Italy Diaccia Botrona
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Lalzi Bay
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Czechia Poodri
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Romania Black Sea
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Løgstør Bredning
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Rømø
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Vorma
Norway Lake Storsjøen
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Gaulosen
Poland Puck Bay
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ammersee
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Germany Terborg
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, embanked area
Germany Seeburger See
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Jadebusen, inland
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Alfsee
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Dümmer
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Germany Wümmewiesen near Fischerhude
Germany Riddagshäuser Teiche
Germany Spreewald
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Schlei
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Rhine flats Sasbach - Wittenweier
Germany Rhine flats Nonnenweier - Kehl
Germany Rhine flats Kehl-Helmlingen
Germany Halligen Oland, Langeneß, Nordstrandischmoor, Gröde und Hooge
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Croatia Turopolje
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Algeria Lac Oubeïra
Algeria Marais de Mekhada
Algeria Barrage de la Cheffia
Algeria Lac Fetzara
Egypt Lake Burullus
Morocco Merja Zerga
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Russia (European) Lake Il'men and adjoining marshy plain
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Issinski
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Russia (European) Morkushskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Lake Lacha
Sri Lanka Giants Tank
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Japan Lake Biwako
Japan Lakes Komuke and Shibunotsunai
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Lower Yoshinogawa river
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression)
Russia (Asian) Azas Nature Reserve
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Abyy lowland
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland
India Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Bahour Lake
India Ousteri Lake
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Otepää
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Russia (Central Asian) Yudinsky stretch
Russia (Central Asian) Zdvinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kornilovsky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Ata-Anay Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Novosverdlovskaya heat and power plant
Russia (Central Asian) Kyzil-Chilik valley
Russia (European) Lower Uvod' river
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Portugal Tejo estuary
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Boucle de Moisson
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Kuwait Dawhat Kazima
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Saudi Arabia King Faisal Airbase, Tabuk
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Wadi Jawwah
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Sweden Lake Lim
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Poland Slowinska Site
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Netherlands Lake Oudegaasterbrekken
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Netherlands Oudeland van Strijen
Netherlands Oostzanerveld
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Netherlands Oostelijke Vechtplassen
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Netherlands De Wieden
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Turkey Burdur Lake
Netherlands De Wilck
Syria Baath Lake
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Alajoki
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Russia (Central Asian) Kataiginskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Netherlands Delta Coast
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Germany Winsener Elbmarsch
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Heerter See
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Einswarder Plate / Tegeler Plate
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Eder alluvion
Germany Kudensee
Ireland Cahore marshes
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Courtmacsherry, Broadstrand and Dunworley Complex
Romania Danube Delta
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Widawa and Olesnica River Valley
Poland Karas Lake
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Egypt Lake Idku
Russia (Central Asian) Kunovatski
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Tenna & Herøy
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Norway Reisa
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Slettnes
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Lahepera lake
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Irbe strait
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Karula
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Krimpenerwaard
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Lavassaare
Norway Balsfjord
Philippines Candaba swamp
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Tunisia Jbel Nadhour et Lagune de Ghar El Melh

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Mareca penelope. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/06/2020.