LC
Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Mareca penelope (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Anas.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 34,900,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 119,000,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 2012
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 6.4 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,800,000-3,300,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 469,000-645,000 pairs, which equates to 937,000-1,290,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable or increasing (Wetlands International 2015). The population trend is increasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007) and the European trend is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant native
Antigua and Barbuda extant vagrant
Armenia extant native yes
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahrain extant native yes
Bangladesh extant native yes
Barbados extant vagrant
Belarus extant native yes yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bermuda (to UK) extant vagrant
Bhutan extant native
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Brunei extant native
Bulgaria extant native yes
Burundi extant vagrant
Cambodia extant native
Cameroon extant vagrant
Canada extant vagrant
Chad extant native
China (mainland) extant native
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant vagrant
Croatia extant native yes yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes yes
Denmark extant native yes yes
Djibouti extant vagrant
Dominica extant vagrant
Dominican Republic extant vagrant
Egypt extant native
Eritrea extant native
Estonia extant native yes yes
Ethiopia extant native
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes yes
Ghana extant vagrant
Greece extant native yes yes
Greenland (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Guadeloupe (to France) extant vagrant
Guam (to USA) extant native yes
Haiti extant vagrant
Hong Kong (China) extant native
Hungary extant native yes yes
Iceland extant native yes
India extant native
Indonesia extant native
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes yes
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant native
Italy extant native yes yes
Japan extant native
Jordan extant native yes yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kenya extant native
Kuwait extant native yes yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Laos extant native
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes yes
Libya extant native
Liechtenstein extant native
Lithuania extant native yes yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Malaysia extant native
Mali extant native
Malta extant native
Marshall Islands extant vagrant
Martinique (to France) extant vagrant
Mauritania extant native
Mexico extant vagrant
Micronesia, Federated States of extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Montserrat (to UK) extant vagrant
Morocco extant native
Myanmar extant native
Nepal extant native
Netherlands extant native yes
Niger extant native
Nigeria extant native
North Korea extant native
North Macedonia extant native yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) extant native yes
Norway extant native yes yes
Oman extant native yes
Pakistan extant native
Palau extant native yes
Palestine extant native yes
Papua New Guinea extant vagrant
Philippines extant native
Poland extant native yes yes
Portugal extant native yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant vagrant
Qatar extant native yes
Romania extant native yes yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes yes
Russia (European) extant native yes yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Senegal extant native
Serbia extant native yes
Singapore extant native
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes yes
Somalia extant vagrant
South Korea extant native
South Sudan extant native yes
Spain extant native yes
Sri Lanka extant native yes
St Kitts and Nevis extant vagrant
St Lucia extant vagrant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant vagrant yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines extant vagrant
Sudan extant native
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) extant vagrant
Sweden extant native yes yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant native yes yes
Taiwan, China extant native
Tajikistan extant native
Tanzania extant native
Thailand extant native
Tunisia extant native yes
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Uganda extant vagrant
Ukraine extant native yes yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
USA extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native
Venezuela extant vagrant
Vietnam extant native
Western Sahara extant native
Yemen extant native yes yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde
Türkiye Marmara Lake
Türkiye Büyük Menderes Delta
Türkiye Göksu Delta
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Russia (European) Bulgarski
Russia (European) Surski reservoir
Ukraine Syvash Bay
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Camargue
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Lalzi Bay
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Rømø
Germany Lower Oder valley
Algeria Lac Oubeïra
Algeria Marais de Mekhada
Algeria Barrage de la Cheffia
Algeria Lac Fetzara
Egypt Lake Burullus
Morocco Merja Zerga
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Iraq Baquba wetlands
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Issinski
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay
Sri Lanka Giants Tank
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Japan Lake Biwako
Japan Lakes Komuke and Shibunotsunai
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Lower Yoshinogawa river
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression)
Russia (Asian) Azas Nature Reserve
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Forty Islands
Russia (Asian) Abyy lowland
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Bahour Lake
India Ousteri Lake
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuch'ye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kornilovsky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Portugal Tejo estuary
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Türkiye Ceyhan Delta
Türkiye Seyhan Delta
Türkiye Burdur Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shaya Indra lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kataiginskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland River Suck callows: Shannon Bridge-Castlecoote
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Lough Foyle
Romania Danube Delta
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Poland Biebrza river valley
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Norway Reisa
Azerbaijan Gizilagach
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Broekvelden, Vettenbroek & Polder Stein
Netherlands Eilandspolder
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Markermeer & IJmeer
Netherlands Oostelijke Vechtplassen
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Polder Zeevang
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Krimpenerwaard
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Russia (Asian) Schast'ya Gulf
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Montenegro Bojana Delta
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake
Russia (Asian) Evoron-Chukchagirskoye depression
Russia (Asian) Tunkin valley
Russia (Asian) Muna-Besyuke

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Mareca penelope. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/eurasian-wigeon-mareca-penelope on 29/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 29/02/2024.