LC
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 22 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 98,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 98,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 190000000-309999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: Rich et al. (2004) estimated the global population to number 20,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 24,000,000-38,200,000 pairs, which equates to 47,900,000-76,400,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 191,000,000-306,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population was suspected to be stable overall in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. However in Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015). The overall trend is therefore estimated to be decreasing.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Canada I Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt V Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) I Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands I Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of I Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) I Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Palau I Extant Yes
Philippines I Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan U Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste I Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Passer montanus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/12/2017.