LC
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 22 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 98,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 98,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 190000000-309999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: Rich et al. (2004) estimated the global population to number 20,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 24,000,000-38,200,000 pairs, which equates to 47,900,000-76,400,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 191,000,000-306,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population was suspected to be stable overall in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. However in Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015). The overall trend is therefore estimated to be decreasing.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brunei N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Canada I Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt V Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) I Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands I Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of I Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) I Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Palau I Extant Yes
Philippines I Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan U Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Timor-Leste I Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Poland Pisz forest
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Lobau
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Machland
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Freiwald
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Unterlammer hill country
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Karwendel
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Passer montanus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/05/2020.