LC
Eurasian Thick-knee Burhinus oedicnemus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Burhinus oedicnemus and B. indicus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously lumped as B. oedicnemus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 459 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 27,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 28,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 360000-589999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 53,400-88,200 pairs, which equates to 107,000-176,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The global population has not been estimated following recent taxonomic splits. However Europe forms approximately 30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 360,000-590,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In Europe, trends show that in the short-term (1998-2013 and 2000-2012 respectively) the population was stable (EBCC 2015) or increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Presence Uncertain Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait U Presence Uncertain
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes Yes
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta U Presence Uncertain
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extinct Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland U Presence Uncertain
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Montenegro Ulcinj saltpans
Azerbaijan Mount Ilandag
Azerbaijan Mount Kargabazar and Mount Gush-gaya
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe
Azerbaijan Negram mountains
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Shamkhor area
Cyprus Akhna dam
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Castro Marim
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Vila Fernando
Portugal Monforte plains
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Alter do Chão
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal Campo Maior
Portugal Cabeção
Portugal Côa valley
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Rayanovtsi
Bulgaria Krumovitza
Bulgaria Madzharovo
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Straldzha Complex
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Tuzla lake
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Akyatan Lake
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Tyrnavos area
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Ecseg Pusztas of Dévaványa
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Heves Plain
Hungary Gerje-sik
Russia (European) Karaichevski forest
Russia (European) Priyeruslanskiye sands
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Bereznyagovski forest
Russia (European) Rubezhnoye forest
Russia (European) Akhtubinsk wetland
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués
Spain Cerrato high moor
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain Layna high moors
Spain Pétrola-Almansa-Yecla
Spain Campo de Montiel
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Villanueva del Fresno
Spain Fuente de Cantos-Montemolín
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain La Serena
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Bajo Alcanadre-Serreta de Tramaced
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Belchite-Mediana
Spain Alcañiz salt lakes
Spain Gallocanta lake
Spain Blancas-Torralba de los Sisones
Spain Quipar reservoir, Molino mountain range and Cagitán plains
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain Puebla de Don Fadrique-Las Cañadas
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Alhamilla mountain range-Campo de Níjar plain
Spain Tabernas desert
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Condado-Campiña
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes
Spain La Mola of Formentera
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Cape Freu-Cape Farrutx
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Coastal cliffs between isles of Malgrats and Cala Figuera
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor
Spain River Moros
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Ballobar-Candasnos
Spain Carrión-Frómista
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Alcarria de Alcalá steppes
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain West Andévalo
Spain La Limia
Spain Haría-Tabayesco
Spain Famara sandy plain
Spain Plains of La Corona-Las Honduras
Spain Plains of Mareta-Hoya de la Yegua
Spain Isthmus of Jandía sandy plain
Spain Lajares sandy plain-Cotillo-Ezquinzo
Spain Coast between Corralejo and Tostón
Spain Morro Tabaiba-Morro de los Rincones-Vallebrón mountains
Spain Gully of Ajuí-Betancuria
Spain Los Molinos gully-Plain of La Laguna
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares
Spain Peninsula of Jandía
Spain Pozo Negro mountain-Vigán
Spain Island of Lobos
Spain Sandy plain of Corralejo
Spain La Dehesa grasslands
Spain Nizdafe plains
Spain Centinela mountain and La Esquina plain
Spain Rasca lava fields-Guaza mountain-Las Mesas plain
Spain El Médano coast
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Velyke marsh
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Bilogir'ya
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
France Zones agricoles de la Hardt
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Petite Beauce
France Vallée de l'Yèvre
France Brenne centrale
France Brenne Sud
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Basse vallée de L'Indre
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Etang de Biguglia
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Boucle de Moisson
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Minervois
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Plateaux agricoles des environs de Frencq
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Crau
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Plateau de Valensole
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest)
France Plaines de Saint-Jouin de Marne et d'Assais-les-Jumeaux
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Plaine de Saint-Jean-de-Sauves
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Marais de la Souche
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Plaine du Forez
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Porton Down
United Kingdom Salisbury Plain
Italy Lake Candia
Italy Piave river
Italy Taro river
Italy Migliarino-San Rossore
Italy River Cecina middle valley
Italy Uccellina mountains, Trappola marshes and Ombrone mouth
Italy Orbetello lagoon and Burano lake
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Gargano promontory
Italy Murge
Italy Gravine
Italy Campo d'Ozieri
Italy Altopiano di Campeda
Italy Central Campidano
Italy Cuglieri coast
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Palmas Gulf wetlands
Italy Coast from Palo to Santa Marinella
Italy Crete Senesi
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Italy Alto Ionio Cosentino
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Middle valley of Tagliamento river
Greece Tokmakia islets, Lesvos
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Italy Trebbia river (lower course)
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Central Marchfeld
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserve on Krk island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Jordan Dana
Oman Barr al Hikman
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
North Macedonia River Zletovska valley
Germany Altengrabower Heide
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes
Russia (European) Sostinskiye lakes
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Russia (European) Tsimlyanskiye sands
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Portugal Albufeira do Caia
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Russia (European) Golubinskiye Sands
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Hungary Cserebökény Pusztas of Szentes
Turkmenistan Tejen
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Russia (European) Krasnoarmeiskiye waste lands
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Manych salt lakes
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Poland Pilica River Valley
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Russia (European) Outskirts of Arbali village
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Italy Albegna river valley
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Beştepe - Mahmudia
Romania Olt valley
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
North Macedonia Pelagonia
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Russia (European) Kundryuchenskiye sands
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Spain Llano Grande - Malpaís Grande - Malpaís Chico
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain
Cyprus Mesaoria Plain
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Burhinus oedicnemus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/03/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/03/2021.