LC
Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Alauda arvensis (AERC TAC [2003]; AOU [1998 and supplements]; Christidis and Boles [2008]; Cramp et al. [1977-1994]; Dowsett and Forbes-Watson [1993]; Sibley and Monroe [1990, 1993]; Turbott [1990]) and A. japonica (Sibley and Monroe [1990, 1993]) have been lumped into A. arvensis following del Hoyo and Collar (2016).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 103,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 42,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 290000000-529999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.3 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 44,300,000-78,800,000 pairs, which equates to 88,700,000-158,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 295,600,000-526,600,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline following marked regional declines in recent decades linked to agricultural intensification (del Hoyo et al. 2004). In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01) (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Canada I Extant Yes
Chad V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
San Marino N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Andorra Pirineo de Andorra
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Zlot gorge--Dubasnica
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Haradzienskaja Svislač
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Zlatiata
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Planina polje
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Slovenia Reka valley
Slovenia Karst
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Sandemar
Poland Pisz forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Kythira island
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Inner Somogy
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Orenburgski Nature Reserve
Spain Alcañiz salt lakes
Spain Los Rodeos-La Esperanza
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Montagne de la Serre
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Marais de Sacy
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Col de l'Escrinet
Italy Val Grande
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys
Italy Crava-Morozzo lakes
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Piave river
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Diaccia Botrona
Italy Vico lake
Italy Pollino
Italy Sila Grande
Italy Ticino river
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Italy Mont Blanc (Italian side)
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Cer mountain
Serbia Kopaonik
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Bukovské hills
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Vlasina
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Machland
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Austria Meadows on the lower Ill
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Heideboden
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Schlei
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Selenter See
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Warder See
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Federseeried
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Heerter See
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Wendesser moor
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Germany Lahn valley from Marburg to Wetzlar
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rotes Moor
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Germany Heidmoor lowlands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lisar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Parvar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khosh-Yeilagh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sarani
Iran, Islamic Republic of Tandoureh
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Forests of Lauenburg
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Germany Kudensee
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Germany Beppener Bruch
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtuguz Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Karazjukski complex of marshes and lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Parshivye mountains
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Harmanliyska Reka
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Italy Monte Rosa (versante valdostano) ed Alta Val Sesia
Italy Val d'Ossola
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Region of Junglinster
Luxembourg Region of the Middle Lias
Luxembourg Region of Schuttrange, Canach, Lenningen and Gostingen
Kyrgyzstan Karkyra Valley
Slovenia Spodnja Sava
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) major breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Alauda arvensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/01/2021.