LC
Eurasian Siskin Spinus spinus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Spinus spinus (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Carduelis following AERC TAC (2003); AOU (1998 and supplements); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 33,300,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 11,700,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 45000000-79999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.1 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 13,600,000-21,100,000 pairs, which equates to 27,200,000-42,100,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.55% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 49,000,000-77,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 showed a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Philippines V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Lithuania Zemaitija National Park
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Slovenia Kočevsko
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Gorce mountains
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Gorgany
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Marais de Sacy
France Montagne de la Serre
France Col de l'Escrinet
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Sila Grande
Italy Aspromonte
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Kopaonik
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Tatry
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovakia Spisská Magura
Serbia Sara mountain
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Wendesser moor
Germany Burgwald
Germany Waldeck upland
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Pointe de Grave
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Massif des Vosges : crêtes de Schneeberg au Donon
France Forêts domaniales de Corse
France Vallée d'Asco
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Massacre
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Puig Carlit et environs
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Haut Giffre
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Lebanon Bentael forest area
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Spinus spinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2020.