Eurasian Pygmy-owl Glaucidium passerinum


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 23,700,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 500000-1199999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 99,600-195,000 pairs, which equates to 199,000-391,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c. 35% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 570,000-1,120,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be fluctuating owing to fluctuations in rodent prey populations and weather conditions (del Hoyo et al. 1999). The European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Austria N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Freiwald
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Karwendel
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Croatia Gorski Kotar and Northern Lika
Croatia Mount Velebit
Croatia Plitvice Lakes National Park
Czech Republic Beskydy mountains
Czech Republic Boletice
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Czech Republic The valley of the Otava a Vltava rivers
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Estonia Haanja
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Väinameri
France Bois des Ayes
France Bois du Chapitre
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Massacre
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
France Parc National de la Vanoise
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Vallée du Haut-Guil
Germany Adelegg
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Aschauteiche and Südheide
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Burgwald
Germany Central Black Forest
Germany Eastern Erzgebirge around Fürstenau
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Harz National Park
Germany Heathlands of Lieberose-Staakow-Reicherskreuz
Germany High alps of Allgäu
Germany Hoher Meißner/Plesse-Konstein
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Military training area Bergen-Hohne
Germany Military training area Munster-Nord
Germany Niederlausitzer Heidegebiete
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Nürnberger Reichswald
Germany Ragow-Mühlroser Heide
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Sächsische Schweiz National Park
Germany Schlaubetal
Germany Schönbuch with Spitzberg
Germany Southern Black Forest
Germany Southern Sandstone-Odenwald
Germany Spessart near Bad Orb
Germany Stromberg
Germany Unterlüß / Kiehnmoor
Germany Upper Harz mountains
Germany Vogelsberg
Germany Westerzgebirge around Carlsfeld
Germany Wurzelbergfarmde
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Italy Carniche Alps
Italy Dolomites
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Mount Grappa
Italy Stelvio National Park
Italy Val D'Ossola
Latvia Gauja national park
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Lithuania Birzai forest
Lithuania Buda - Pravieniskes forest complex
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP
Lithuania Zalioji & Gitenai forests complex
Mongolia Gorkhi-Terelj National Park
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Norway Reisa
Poland Augustów forest
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Karkonosze Mountains
Poland Knyszyn Forest
Poland Lower Silesia Forests
Poland Slonne Mountains
Poland Stolowe Mountains
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains
Poland Tatra mountains
Romania Călimani Mountains
Romania Ceahlă Mountains
Romania Defileul Superior al Mureşului
Romania Frumoasa
Romania Giurgeu Depression
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Romania Retezat Mountains
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Vrancea Mountains
Russia (Asian) Sayanski canyon of the Enisey river
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural
Russia (Central Asian) Kileinoye bog
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Visimsky zapovednik and vicinity
Russia (Central Asian) Zaikovo forest
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'"
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Tatry
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovenia Grintovci
Slovenia Jelovica plateau
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia Pohorje
Sweden Båtfors – Bredfors
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Florarna
Sweden Hanveden – Hemfosa
Sweden Sjöängen – Svartån

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Boreal suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude 250 - 2150 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Glaucidium passerinum. Downloaded from on 22/05/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/05/2019.