LC
Eurasian Penduline-tit Remiz pendulinus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Remiz macronyx has been lumped with Eurasian Penduline-tit R. pendulinus, after detailed molecular analysis (Barani-Beiranvand et al. 2017) suggested that there is very little difference between the forms and that R. pendulinus/macronyx, R. coronatus and R. consobrinus form three independent evolutionary lineages.

Further support for the two superficial distinctive types actually belonging to a single species can be found in the taxonomic notes in the Checklist, which mention taxa (bostanjogli, loudoni and altaicus) now known to be hybrids between the two species, while R. m. ssaposhnikowi is so variable that it, too, is probably better considered a hybrid, and the race R. p. caspius is admitted as possibly better belonging with R. macronyx. Such taxonomic uncertainty suggests a boundary between the two species so porous that the only reasonable course is to treat them as one. 

Taxonomic source(s)
Barani‐Beiranvand, H., Aliabadian, M., Irestedt, M., Qu, Y., Darvish, J., Székely, T., Van Dijk, R.E. and Ericson, P.G. 2017. Phylogeny of penduline tits inferred from mitochondrial and microsatellite genotyping. Journal of avian biology 48(7): 932-940.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2019. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 4. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v4_Dec19.zip.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency unset
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 16,600,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 18,500,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1400000 poor estimated 2019
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: An estimate combining various basic regional summaries in Madge (2019) would put the global population at over 1,400,000. This excludes the subspecies R. p. macronyx, so it is preliminarily used here as a minimum estimate.

Trend justification: The population is estimated to be increasing following substantial recorded range expansions and only minor range contractions (Harrap and Quinn 1996). In many cases, human disturbance has provided more habitat through, for example, the creation of fish farms and lakes through mining subsidence (Madge 2019). Historical declines of the subspecies macronyx through agricultural changes in central Asia and the disappearance of the Aral Sea are thought to have been significant (Madge 2019).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
Serbia Carska Bara

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Shrub Dominated Wetlands suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Remiz pendulinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020.