NT
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Haematopus ostralegus and H. finschi were previously lumped as H. ostralegus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014), but have once more been recognised as species following a review of additional material allowing the scoring of the taxa against each other and H. longirostrisH. chathamensis, and H. unicolor (G. Ehmke in litt. 2015, Hayman et al. 1986, Marchant and Higgins 1993). This restores the taxonomic position of the two species prior to del Hoyo and Collar (2014).

Taxonomic source(s)
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2019. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 4. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v4_Dec19.zip.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Near Threatened A2bc+3b+4bc
2016 Not Recognised
2014 Not Recognised
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 36,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 98,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 500000-999999 poor suspected 2019
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 925,000-1,030,000 individuals, based on expert opinion (Wetlands International 2019), and comprising the three separate subspecies of H. o. ostralegus (820,000), H. o. longpipes (100,000-200,000) and H. o. osculans (5,000-10,000; Wetlands International 2019). This is roughly equivalent to 616,667-686,667 mature individuals, here placed in the band 500,000-999,999 mature individuals. Population estimates are lower than those of recent assessments due to the recent taxonomic split, whereby Haematopus finschi (South Island Oystercatcher), previously considered a subspecies of Haematopus ostralegus (del Hoyo et. al. 2014), was designated a separate species.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing (Wetlands International 2019, Nagy et al. 2014, van de Pol et al. 2014, van Roomen et al. 2014a, BirdLife International 2015). The population of ostralegus, the largest of the three subspecies, increased strongly between the 1960s and the 1990s (van de Pol et al. 2014), but has subsequently declined significantly, at a rate exceeding 40% over three generations. The long-term increases are often ascribed to successful adaptation to breeding inland on newly available agricultural grasslands (Meltofte 1993, Goss-Custard et al. 1996) however, apparent concurrent increases in coastal populations contrast with this view. The longipes population is reported to be stable (Sarychev and Mischenko 2014, van Roomen et al. 2014b) and the trend for the osculans population is unknown (Melville et al. 2014). Recent rapid declines in the H. o. ostralegus population may however be part of a longer-term fluctuation. Mechanical shellfisheries operations have been severely restricted in the Netherlands (van de Pol et al. 2014), however, there has not been a concomitant halt in the population decline despite food stocks recovering (M. van de Pol in litt. 2016). Further information is needed to confirm whether the population may reach stability in the future or if it will continue to decline. Because of this uncertainty, the overall rate of decline is currently placed in the band 20-29% in three generations although the current rate within the largest population appears to be higher.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Delta Coast
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)
China (mainland) Dongsha shoals
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
China (mainland) Rudong coast
China (mainland) Dongling coast
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vøtnini á Sandoy (Lakes of Sandoy)
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Nólsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Fugloy
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Latvia Engure lake
Iceland Markarfljótsaurar
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Boyne estuary
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland Bannow Bay
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Castlemaine Harbour
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Cummeen Strand (Sligo Harbour)
Ireland Drumcliff Bay and Ballintemple
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Trawbreaga Bay
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lundåkra Bight
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Fjord of Båta
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Warta River Mouth
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Engelsmanplaat
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Netherlands Rottumeroog
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Westplaat
Netherlands Grevelingen
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Kupy area
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Ría de Arosa (O Grove) estuary
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Solonyj Lyman lake
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Iles Chausey
France Havre de la Sienne
France Littoral Augeron
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Archipel des Glénan
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Ile d'Ouessant
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Archipel des Sept-Iles
France Ile de Goulmedec
France Ilôts de Trévorc'h
France Archipel de Molène
France Cap Frehel
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Alvie
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cameron Reservoir
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Copinsay
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Crussa Field and the Heogs
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Flanders Moss and Lake of Menteith
United Kingdom Gladhouse Reservoir
United Kingdom Greenlaw Moor
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Handa
United Kingdom Hill of Colvadale and Sobul
United Kingdom Holburn Lake and Moss
United Kingdom Din Moss and Hoselaw Loch
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch Ken and Dee Marshes
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Kinnordy
United Kingdom Loch of Lintrathen
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Ruthven
United Kingdom Mointeach Scadabhaigh
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moorland Areas, Central Shetland
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rinns of Islay
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors
United Kingdom Eoligarry, Barra
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Westwater Reservoir
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Cromdale Hills
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Horse Island
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Darnaway and Lethen Forest
United Kingdom Mochrum and Castle Lochs
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom North Westray Coast
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast
United Kingdom South Walls and Switha
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Jersey Shoreline
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Po Delta
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Rømø
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Vorma
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Skjernøy, South Skerries
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Sklinna
Norway Runde
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Gaulosen
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Schlei
Germany Southern shore of Eckernförder Bucht
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Neustädter Bucht
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Leda-Jümme lowlands
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Halligen Oland, Langeneß, Nordstrandischmoor, Gröde und Hooge
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Montenegro Ulcinj saltpans
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Turkey Ağrı Plain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Klyazminski reserve
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Sura river
Russia (European) Moksha valley in vicinity of Temnikov
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
Russia (European) Valley of Terek river, Kabardino-Balkaria
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Yubu-do island
Russia (Central Asian) Mountain of the Checka
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Rocky outcrops of river Uj
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between Gorodets and N.Novgorod
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (Central Asian) Sibirskaya anabranch (Irtysh flood-plain)
Russia (European) Kivach Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (Central Asian) Belozerskaya flood-plain of river Tobol
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Navashinski district
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Pelymsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Cheka mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Kuwait Dawhat Kazima
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Russia (European) Golubinskiye Sands
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Yemen Aden
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
United Kingdom Sleibhtean Agus Chladach Thiriodh
Poland Pilica River Valley
Russia (European) Sulakskaya bay
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Turkmenistan Ogurjaly island
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Croatia Neretva Delta
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Duinen Goeree & Kwade Hoek
Russia (European) Pikhtovka fishponds
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Russia (European) Rasskazan' lake and flood-plain of Khoper river
Russia (European) Ust'-Medveditskaya area
Russia (European) Vetluga floodplain in the Nizhni Novgorod region
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Klyazminsko-Balakhninskaya lowland
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Klyaz'ma river from mouth of Teza river up to Mstera
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Rysumer Nacken
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Elbe lowlands near Bertingen
Ireland Nanny estuary and shoreline
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Ireland West Donegal coast
Ireland Dunfanaghy New Lake
Ireland Fanad Head peninsula
Ireland Lough Foyle
Ireland Donegal Bay
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs
United Kingdom The Wash
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Swietokrzyskie Vistula River Valley
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Norway Tenna & Herøy
Guinea-Bissau Rio Cacheu
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Guinea-Bissau Cantanhez forests
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone River Estuary
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay
Senegal La Petite Côte
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Kalissaye Avifaunal Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Crassostrea gigas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Spartina alterniflora Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic species/disease of unknown origin - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water - Sewage Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Haematopus ostralegus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2020.