LC
Eurasian Nuthatch Sitta europaea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Sitta europaea and S. arctica (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as S. europaea following AERC TAC (2003), Cramp et al. (1977-1994) and Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass 20 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 51,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000000-500000000 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 10,700,000-21,400,000 pairs, which equates to 21,400,000-42,800,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in China, c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Taiwan, c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Korea and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Japan (Brazil 2009). The global population is likely to fall in the range 10,000,000-500,000,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be fluctuating owing to fluctuations in food availability. In Europe the population trend between 1980 and 2013 was estimated to be undergoing a moderate increase (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Girkan forest
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Poland Pisz forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Agrafa mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
France Plaine des Maures
France Marais de Sacy
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e Naz Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ilam area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Oshtrankuh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kuh-i Dena, and Yasuj and Sisakht area

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude 300 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Sitta europaea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/06/2020.