Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus


Taxonomic note
Oriolus oriolus and O. kundoo (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as O. oriolus following AERC TAC (2003), Cramp et al. (1977-1994), Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993) and Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 26,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 11,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 17000000-31999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 4,370,000-8,020,000 pairs, which equates to 8,740,000-16,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms >50% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 17,480,000-32,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: This population is suspected to be stable overall, with the European population trend stable between 1982 and 2013 (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant
Congo V Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gabon V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Madagascar V Extant
Malawi N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali V Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Romania Dobron forest
Slovenia Planina polje
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Sweden Ottenby
Sweden Kullaberg
Poland Pisz forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Plateau de Valensole
France Plaine des Maures
France Marais de Sacy
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Ponziane islands
Italy Capri island
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Germany Selenter See
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Ammersee
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Niers valley
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Recker Moor/ Düsterdieker Niederung/ Seester Feld
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Heerter See
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Heidmoor lowlands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Germany Oldenburger Graben and Wesseker See
Germany Forests of Lauenburg
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Germany Retzower Heide
Germany Hasbruch
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Lengeder Teichgebiet
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Davert
Germany Gohrischheide
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Negotinska krajina
Serbia Obedska bara

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Oriolus oriolus. Downloaded from on 03/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/07/2022.