NT
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2016 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 118,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.835,000-1,310,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). The European population is estimated at 212,000-292,000 pairs, which equates to 425,000-584,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015), and is roughly equivalent to 647,500-876,000 individuals.

Trend justification: Data from 2007 return estimated three-generation declines of 26.1-34.1%. However, owing to the uncertainty over whether declines in southern populations have been compensated for by increases in northern populations, the global trend is suspected to fall within the band 20-30% in the past 15 years (three generations). The European population is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 31.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra U Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic V Extant Yes
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant
Niue (to New Zealand) V Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Belarus Balota Dzikoje
Belarus Sporovo
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Liechtenstein Ruggeller Riet, Talgebiet
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Estonia Audru polder
Estonia Käina bay
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Phasouri reedbeds
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Lielais Kemeru bog
Latvia Pape
Latvia Durbe lake meadows
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Boyne estuary
Ireland River Shannon callows: Portumna-Athlone
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland North Wicklow coastal marshes
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland The Cull and Killag
Ireland Bannow Bay
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland River Blackwater callows
Ireland Blackwater estuary
Ireland Ballymacoda
Ireland Ballycotton, Ballynamona and Shanagarry
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Inner Clonakilty Bay
Ireland Castlemaine Harbour
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Rahasane turlough
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Cummeen Strand (Sligo Harbour)
Ireland Drumcliff Bay and Ballintemple
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Trawbreaga Bay
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland Upper Barrow flood-plain
Ireland Kilcolman bog
Ireland Lough Foyle
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Belgium Mechelse Heide en de Vallei van de Ziepbeek
Belgium Gebieden gelegen te Houthalen-Helchteren en Meeuwen-Gruitrode
Belgium Vallei van de Zwarte Beek
Belgium Gebieden ten noorden van Turnhout en Ravels
Belgium Kalmthoutse Heide
Belgium De Maatjes, Wuustwezel Heide en Groot Schietveld
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium Westkust
Belgium Zwin
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Ottenby
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lundåkra Bight
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Fjord of Båta
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Slesin and Wystep ponds
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Rottumeroog
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Engelsmanplaat
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Dollard
Netherlands Westplaat
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Veerse Meer
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Kilsiaapa-Ristivuoma
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Hungary Hanság
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Gerje-sik
Hungary Tápió valley
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Sources of the River Luga
Russia (European) Budnyanski mire
Russia (European) Kupy area
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Kulaksay lowland
Russia (European) Olonets plain
Russia (European) Kargopol' area
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Polisto-Lovatskaya mire system
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Savtsinskoye marsh
Russia (European) Orshinski marshes
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Danilovskoe marshes
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Urdaibai - Matxitxako
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Ría de Arosa (O Grove) estuary
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Santander Bay
Spain Tina Menor-Sarnosa island-Oyambre
Spain El Médano coast
Ukraine Jansheijs'ke lake
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Havre de la Sienne
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Champ de Tir du Poteau
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Bassigny
France Vallée du Fouzon
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Bazoncourt-Vigy
France Forêt de la Reine
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Plaine du Forez
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Bodmin Moor
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
United Kingdom Breckland
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cameron Reservoir
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Castle Loch, Lochmaben
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Copinsay
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Crussa Field and the Heogs
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Elenydd - Mallaen
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Flanders Moss and Lake of Menteith
United Kingdom Gladhouse Reservoir
United Kingdom Greenlaw Moor
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Din Moss and Hoselaw Loch
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch Ken and Dee Marshes
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Ruthven
United Kingdom Loch Shin and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moorland Areas, Central Shetland
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Peak District Moors
United Kingdom Pettigoe Plateau
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rinns of Islay
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Tay - Isla Valley
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom New Forest
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors
United Kingdom Eoligarry, Barra
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Westwater Reservoir
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Antrim Hills
United Kingdom Coilacriech
United Kingdom Correen Hills
United Kingdom Cromdale Hills
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Upper Deeside Plantations
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Mochrum and Castle Lochs
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast
United Kingdom South Walls and Switha
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Tips of Corsemaul and Tom Mor
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom South Pennine and Peak District Moors
United Kingdom Isle of Man Sea Cliffs
United Kingdom Isle of Man Hills
United Kingdom Jersey Shoreline
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Migliarino-San Rossore
Italy Uccellina mountains, Trappola marshes and Ombrone mouth
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Oristano wetlands
Albania Patoku lagoon
Albania Lalzi Bay
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden River Helge
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Morava
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Machland
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Germany Ammersee
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Tinner Dose and Staverner Dose
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Milde lowlands/Altmark
Germany Wulfener Bruch and Teichgebiet Osternienburg
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Herbsleben ponds
Germany Helme reservoir Berga-Kelbra
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Spreewald
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Recker Moor/ Düsterdieker Niederung/ Seester Feld
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Germany Terborg
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, embanked area
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Winsener Elbmarsch
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Aper Tief
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Groß Fullener Moor
Germany Leda-Jümme lowlands
Germany Jadebusen, inland
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Ostenholzer Moor and Meissendorfer Teiche
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Dümmer
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Fehntjer Tief
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Germany Wümmewiesen near Fischerhude
Germany Dalum Wietmarscher swamp
Germany Georgsdorfer swamp
Germany Leeg-, Melm- and Kuhdammoor
Germany Jammertal
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Federseeried
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Northern Wetterau
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Heidmoor lowlands
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Iraq Khawr Abdallah
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Kuwait Sulaibikhat Bay
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Yemen Midi - Al-Luhayyah
Vietnam Dat Mui
Russia (European) Ivinski flood-plain (Verkhnesvirskoye reservoir)
Russia (European) Watershead of Atsvezh and Yuma rivers
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Bangladesh Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan
Malaysia Matang coast
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Philippines Olango Island
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Yubu-do island
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
Vietnam Xuan Thuy
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Belarus Servač
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Russia (European) Shabel'skaya sand-spit
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Ust'-Ozerninskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Yarovskoe marsh
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain
Russia (Central Asian) Kyzil-Chilik valley
Russia (European) Pizhemski reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Marsh southward of village Stepanovka near Okunevo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Vodorazdel'naya
Russia (Central Asian) Kataiginskiye bogs
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoe Mit'kino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Marjanovski part of Kamyshlovskaya valley
Russia (Central Asian) Karazjukski complex of marshes and lakes
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Littoral Augeron
France Mars sur Allier
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Etang des Landes
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Pointe de Grave
France Archipel des Sept-Iles
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Marais de Manteyer
France Vallée de l'Yèvre
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Plateau de Delme, Val de Petite Seille
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Marais de la Souche
Russia (Central Asian) Busly lake
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Sitnikovski Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy Sarykul' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Siverga lake
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Ubinskoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Akh lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Yudinsky stretch
Russia (Central Asian) Mayan lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Pelymsky Tuman
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy and Maly Vagilsky Tuman
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Duqm
Qatar Al-Dhakira mangrove
Qatar Al-Aliyah island
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Norway Tenna & Herøy
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Urochysche Mushevo
Austria Riede in the northern Rhein valley
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Germany Military training area east and west of Jüterbog
Kazakhstan Teke Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Sweden Bog of Komosse
Sweden Bog of Dumme
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Iskrinskie Pine Forests
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake
Russia (European) Zhuravlinaya
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Russia (European) Shalimovskoye bog
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Netherlands Rijn: Heteren - Amerongen
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Netherlands Lake Oudegaasterbrekken
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
Netherlands Lake Fluessen, Vogelhoek and Morra
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Russia (European) Forests, bogs and gathering of the Common Cranes near Voskresenskoye village
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Netherlands Delta Coast
Netherlands IJssel: IJsselkop - Ketelmeer
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Netherlands Duinen Goeree & Kwade Hoek
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Russia (European) Ul'skoye bog
Germany Colblitz-Letzlinger Heide
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Viehmoor with Leiferder Teiche
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Dollart
Germany Eschebrügger Wösten
Germany Gildehauser Venn
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Aisch-Regnitz-Grund
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Lucie and Landwehr
Germany Alfsee
Germany Murnauer Moos and Loisach-Kochel-Moore
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Rysumer Nacken
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Military training area Munster-Süd
Germany Mittleres Wietingsmoor
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Renchniederung
Germany Kinzig- und Schutterniederung between Niederschopfheim and Kehl
Germany Kammbachniederung
Germany Elzniederung between Kenzingen and Rust
Germany Rohrsee near Bad Wurzach
Germany Eriskircher Ried of Lake Constance
Germany Donauried
Germany Eiderstedt
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Wetterau
Germany Neckar oxbows in the Hessian Ried
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Haaler Au lowlands
Ireland Cahore marshes
Ireland Tramore Backstrand
Ireland Killala Bay
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Courtmacsherry, Broadstrand and Dunworley Complex
Romania Danube Delta
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Belarus Braslav lakes
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Slovenia Črete
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Ría de Villaviciosa
Spain Esteiro do Miño
Spain Terra Chá
Spain Vegas del Alagón
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Tunisia Lagune El Bibane
Tunisia Golfe de Boughrara
Tunisia Côte de Zerkine et El Grine
Tunisia Îles Kerkennah
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Yemen Aden
Yemen Al-Mukha - Al-Khawkhah
Norway Jæren
Denmark Borris Hede
Denmark Hanstholm Reservation
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark South Læsø
Tunisia Sebkhet Dreiaâ
Denmark Råbjerg Mile and surrounding heathlands
Kenya Lolldaiga-Mugogodo-Ewaso N'yiro
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Kikepera
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Kärevere
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Kunda
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Estonia Agusalu
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Rijntakken
Netherlands Getijde - beïnvloede Maas
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Estonia Meelva bog
China (mainland) Laoting (Daqing He–Shi Jiu Tuo)
United Arab Emirates Marawah Island
Sweden Lake Lim
Sweden Sjaunja
Germany Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Muddus
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
China (mainland) Luannan coast and saltworks
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)
China (mainland) Wuleidao Bay
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
China (mainland) Rudong coast
China (mainland) Dongling coast
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Guinea-Bissau Rio Cacheu
Guinea-Bissau Cantanhez forests
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay
Senegal La Petite Côte
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Parc National de Basse Casamance
Senegal Kalissaye Avifaunal Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Numenius arquata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020.