NT
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2016 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Near Threatened A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 118,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.835,000-1,310,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2016). The European population is estimated at 212,000-292,000 pairs, which equates to 425,000-584,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015), and is roughly equivalent to 647,500-876,000 individuals.

Trend justification: Data from 2007 return estimated three-generation declines of 26.1-34.1%. However, owing to the uncertainty over whether declines in southern populations have been compensated for by increases in northern populations, the global trend is suspected to fall within the band 20-30% in the past 15 years (three generations). The European population is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 31.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra U Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Central African Republic V Extant Yes
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant
Niue (to New Zealand) V Extant
North Korea N Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Machland
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Bangladesh Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta
Belarus Braslav lakes
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Baie de Vilaine
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Cap Gris-nez
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iraq Khawr Abdallah
Ireland Ballymacoda
Ireland Blackwater estuary
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Inner Clonakilty Bay
Ireland Lough Foyle
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland The Cull and Killag
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Venice lagoon
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Kuwait Sulaibikhat Bay
Malaysia Matang coast
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama
Netherlands Balgzand (superseded 2007)
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Engelsmanplaat (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Griend (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Rottumeroog (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Rottumerplaat (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Jæren
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Tenna & Herøy
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Philippines Olango Island
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Wizna Swamps
Romania Danube Delta
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Polisto-Lovatskaya mire system
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Slovenia Črete
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
South Korea Yubu-do island
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Esteiro do Miño
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Ría de Arosa (O Grove) estuary
Spain Ría de Villaviciosa
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank
Spain Santander Bay
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Terra Chá
Spain Tina Menor-Sarnosa island-Oyambre
Spain Urdaibai - Matxitxako
Spain Vegas del Alagón
Tunisia Kneiss
United Arab Emirates Khor al Beideh
United Arab Emirates Khor Dubai
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Vietnam Dat Mui
Vietnam Xuan Thuy
Yemen Midi - Al-Luhayyah

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Numenius arquata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/12/2017.