Eurasian Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris


Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 182,000-342,000 pairs, which equates to 363,000-685,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,210,000-2,280,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in China has been estimated at c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification
In Europe the overall trend from 1998-2013 was stable (EBCC 2015).


This species is found on mountains, crags and coastal cliffs and also around human habitations. It breeds from May to August. Both sexes build the nest which is an open half-cup made of mud pellets, lined with grass and feathers and the female continues to add lining during incubation. It is placed in a crevice or under an overhang on a cliff face and also sometimes on a bridge or on or in a building. Clutches are generally two to five eggs (Turner 2004). It feeds on insects, usually taken in flight. Northern populations of this species are migratory while elsewhere it is resident, only making altitudinal movements (Snow and Perrins 1998) and post-breeding movements (Turner and Rose 1989).


There are currently no known significant threats to this species within Europe.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Currently no conservation measures are needed for this species within Europe.


Text account compilers
Wheatley, H., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Ashpole, J, Butchart, S.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Ptyonoprogne rupestris. Downloaded from on 27/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/05/2022.