LC
Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Turdus merula, T. simillimus, T. maximus and T. mandarinus (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as T. merula following AERC TAC (2003), AOU (1998 & supplements), Christidis & Boles (2008), Cramp et al. (1977-1994), Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993) and Turbott (1990).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass 113 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 32,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 33,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000000-500000000 medium suspected 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.4 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 54,800,000-87,100,000 pairs, which equates to 110,000,000-174,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). It is likely that the global population falls in the band 10,000,000-500,000,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was increasing (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) I Extinct
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA V Extant
Uzbekistan V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Socodor wood
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Slovenia Planina polje
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Reka valley
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Poland Pisz forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Kedros and Kourtaliotiko gorge, Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Kerkis, Samos
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Mounts Agia Dynati and Kokkini Rachi, Kefalonia
Greece Kythira island
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Serifos island
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Zhigulevski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Mouth of Svir river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Sura river
Russia (European) Kulikovski forest
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Lower Urushten river
Russia (European) Akhmet-Skala ridge
Russia (European) Valley of Urup river
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian Bay
Russia (European) Gavan'skie oak-forest
Russia (European) Kaluzhskiye Zaseki Nature Reserve
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Gorgany
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
France Marais de Sacy
Italy Val Grande
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Piave river
Italy Taro river
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Apennines from Passo del Cerreto to Monte Caligi
Italy Vico lake
Italy Foreste Casentinesi
Italy Alpi Apuane
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Cer mountain
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Syslovské fields
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Tríbec
Slovakia Riecnica
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Lobau
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Right coast of Malaya Laba River
Russia (European) Leninsk forest area
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Studenets
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Belasitza mountain
Russia (European) Kilemarski Reserve
Lebanon Bentael forest area
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Serbia Derdap gorge
Serbia Golija
Serbia Kucaj-Beljanica
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Valjevske mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2300 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 2700 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Turdus merula. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/07/2020.