Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris


BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Gilbert, G.; Tyler, G. A.; Dunn, C. J.; Smith, K. W. 2005. Nesting habitat selection by bitterns Botaurus stellaris in Britain and the implications for wetland management. Biological Conservation 124: 547-553.

Gilbert, G.; Tyler, G. A.; Dunn. C. J.; Ratcliffe, N.; Smith, K. W. 2007. The influence of habitat management on the breeding success of the Great Bittern Botaurus stellaris in Britain. Ibis 149: 53-66.

Hancock, J.; Kushlan, J. 1984. The herons handbook. Croom Helm, London.

Kushlan, J.A. and Hancock, J.A. 2005. The herons. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Marion, L.; Ulenaers, P.; van Vessem, J. 2000. Herons in Europe. In: Kushlan, J. A.; Hafner, H. (ed.), Heron conservation, pp. 1-31. Academic Press, San Diego.

Newbery, P.; Schäffer, N.; Smith, K. 1996. European Union Bittern Botarus stellaris Action Plan.

Noble, R. A. A.; Harvey, J. P.; Cowx, I. G. 2004. Can management of freshwater fish populations be used to protect and enhance the conservation status of a rare, fish-eating bird, the bittern, Botaurus stellaris, in the UK? 11: 291-302.

Puglisi, L.; Adamo, M. C.; Baldaccini, N. E. 2005. Man-induced habitat changes and sensitive species: a GIS approach to the Eurasian Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) distribution in a Mediterranean wetland. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 1909-1922.

Self, M. 2005. A review of management for fish and bitterns, Botaurus stellaris, in wetland reserves. Fisheries Management and Ecology 12: 387-394.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

IUCN SSC Heron Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

European Union Species Action Plan

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Species factsheet from HeronConservation - The IUCN-SSC Heron Specialist Group

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Botaurus stellaris. Downloaded from on 27/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/09/2022.