LC
Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 86,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 86,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.115,000-340,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 37,600-66,400 calling or lekking males, which equates to 75,300-133,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; < c.100 breeding pairs and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and < c.100,000 breeding pairs and < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends and others are stable (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia V Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Malta N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Swaziland N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extinct Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Belgium Bokrijk
Belgium De Maten
Belgium Hamonterheide, Hageven, Buitenheide, Mariahof en Stamprooierbroek
Belgium Polderkomplex
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Straldzha Complex
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Czech Republic Poodri
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Maribo lakes
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Võrtsjärv
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
France Brenne centrale
France Camargue
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Etang de Capestang
France Etang de Lindre
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Forêt de la Reine
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Marais de Brière
France Marais de la Souche
France Marais de Sacy
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Plaine du Forez
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iraq Hawizeh
Iraq Hindiya Barrage
Iraq Huweija marshes
Iraq Samara Wetlands
Israel Carmel coast
Israel Northern Arava valley
Italy Bassa Modenese
Italy Colfiorito
Italy Diaccia Botrona
Italy Iolanda di Savoia wetlands
Italy Lake Massaciuccoli
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Latvia Pape
Latvia Razna
Latvia Seda marsh
Lithuania Birzulius-Stervas marshes complex
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone
Lithuania Lake Druksiai
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Plinksiai state Nature Reserve and its environs
Lithuania Tyruliai State Nature Reserve
Lithuania Wetland complex of the Baltoji Voke fish-farm with neighbouring turbary and lake Papis
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Gelderse Poort (superseded 24/5/2107)
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland, Oostzanerveld & Twiske
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Weerribben
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Oman Khawr Rouri
Oman Salalah Bird Sanctuary
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Swidwie lake
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului
Romania Comana
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Suhaia
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa lagoons
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Slovakia Medzibodrozie
Slovakia Morava
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Cinco Villas ponds
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Pitillas and Dos Reinos lagoons
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Lake Dättern
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Lake Vendel
Sweden River Helge
Sweden Western part of Lake Mälaren
Syria Ras al-Ayn
Turkey Balıkdamı
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Ukraine Bodakivs'ke marsh
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Cholhyns'kyj zakaznyk
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Sosyns'kyj protected area
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Udaj river valley
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Leighton Moss
United Kingdom Marazion Marsh
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Upper Nene Valley Gravel Pits
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Botaurus stellaris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/11/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/11/2018.