Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis


Akçakaya, H.R., Keith, D.A., Burgman, M., Butchart, S.H.M., Hoffmann, M., Regan, H.M., Harrison, I. and Boakes, E. 2017. Inferring extinctions III: a cost-benefit framework for listing extinct species. Biological Conservation 214: 336–342.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

Blanco, D.; Banchs, R.; Canevari, P. 1993. Critical sites for the Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis), and other Nearctic grassland shorebirds in Argentina and Uruguay.

Butchart, S. H. M.; Lowe, S.; Martin, R. W.; Symes, A.; Westrip, J. R. S.; Wheatley, H. 2018. Which birds have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Biological Conservation 227: 9-18.

Craig, R. J. 2019. External anatomy, plumages, and historical distribution of the Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis). The Wilson Ornithological Society 131(3): 543-552.

Elphick, C.S., Roberts, D.L., and Reed, J.M. 2010. Estimated dates of recent extinctions for North American and Hawaiian birds. Biological Conservation 143(3): 617-624.

Environment Canada. 2007. Recovery Strategy for the Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis) in Canada. Environment Canada, Ottawa.

Gill, R. E.; Canevari, P.; Iversen, E. H. 1998. Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 347, pp. 1-28. The Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington DC.

Graves, G. R. 2010. Late 19th Century abundance trends of the Eskimo Curlew on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Waterbirds 33(2): 236-241.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Keith, D.A., Butchart S.H.M., Regan, H.M., Collen, B., Harrison, I., Solow, A.R. and Burgman, M.A. 2017. Inferring extinctions I: a structured method using information on threats. Biological Conservation 214: 320–327.

Roberts, D. L.; Elphick, C. S.; Reed, J. M. 2010. Identifying anomalous reports of putatively extinct species and why it matters. Conservation Biology 24(1): 189-196.

Roberts, D.L., and Jari?, I. 2016. Inferring extinction in North American and Hawaiian birds in the presence of sighting uncertainty. PeerJ 4: e2426.

Thompson, C.J., Koshkina, V., Burgman, M.A., Butchart, S.H.M. and Stone, L. 2017. Inferring extinctions II: an iterative model based on records and surveys. Biological Conservation 214: 328–335.

Further resources

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Numenius borealis. Downloaded from on 02/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 02/07/2022.