CR (PE)
Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
D D D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered D
2015 Critically Endangered D
2012 Critically Endangered D
2009 Critically Endangered D1
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1-49 medium estimated 2000
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -

Population justification: Any remaining population is assumed to be tiny (numbering fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals), as there have been no confirmed sightings since the early 1960s.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Possibly Extinct Yes
Barbados N Possibly Extinct Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extinct
Bolivia V Possibly Extinct
Brazil N Possibly Extinct Yes Yes
Canada N Possibly Extinct Yes Yes
Chile N Possibly Extinct Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extinct
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extinct
Grenada V Extinct
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extinct
Guatemala V Extinct
Iceland V Extinct
Ireland V Extinct
Mexico N Possibly Extinct Yes
Paraguay N Possibly Extinct Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extinct
Russia V Extinct
Russia (Asian) V Extinct
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extinct
Trinidad and Tobago V Possibly Extinct
United Kingdom V Extinct
Uruguay N Possibly Extinct Yes
USA N Possibly Extinct Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extinct

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Anderson River Delta

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Altitude 0 - 350 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Historical
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Historical
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Numenius borealis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/10/2017.