Erect-crested Penguin Eudyptes sclateri


Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2b; B2ab(ii,v) A2b; B2ab(ii,v); D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2b; B2ab(ii,v)
2012 Endangered A2b;B2ab(i,ii,iv,v)
2010 Endangered A2b; B2a+b(i,ii,iv,v)
2008 Endangered A2b; B2a+b(i,ii,iv,v)
2007 Endangered
2005 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,300 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 579,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 150000 good estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification:

Population trends indicate a severe decline between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s (Davis 2013). On the Bounty Islands, estimated numbers of were 115,000 pairs (Robertson and van Tets 1982) in 1978, declining to 28,000 pairs by 1997 (Taylor 2000), with 26,000 breeding pairs recorded in 2011 (Miskelly 2013). On the Antipodes Islands an estimated 115,000 breeding pairs were recorded in 1978 (Taylor 2000), which has since declined to 52,000 pairs by 1995, and to 34,226 pairs by 2011 (Hiscock and Chilvers 2014). Overall it appears that the population decline apparent until the 1990s has since slowed somewhat, which corresponds to the trend observed in the sympatrically breeding Southern Rockhopper Penguins (Morrison et al. 2015). Based on 2011 estimates of breeding pairs and assuming that only 80% of the mature individuals engage in breeding each year, there are c.150,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The Bounty Islands population declined 76% during 1978-1998, but census methods were variable. The Antipodes population declined by c.50% during 1978-1995, and there have been further decreases since (G. A. Taylor in litt. 1999, Taylor 2000, D. Houston in litt. 2008). Based on this information, a very rapid decline is estimated to have occurred over the last three generations. However, recent surveys indicate that the rate of decline may be slower than this (J. Hiscock in litt. 2012).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica V Extant
Argentina V Extant
Australia V Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Antipodes Islands
New Zealand Bounty Islands
New Zealand Campbell Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 75 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Eudyptes sclateri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017.