Erect-crested Penguin Eudyptes sclateri


Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2b; B1ab(ii,v)+2ab(ii,v) A2b+3b+4b; B1ab(ii,v)+2ab(ii,v); D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered A2b; B1ab(ii,v)+2ab(ii,v)
2016 Endangered A2b; B2ab(ii,v)
2012 Endangered A2b;B2ab(i,ii,iv,v)
2010 Endangered A2b; B2a+b(i,ii,iv,v)
2008 Endangered A2b; B2a+b(i,ii,iv,v)
2007 Endangered
2005 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,300 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 580,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 136 medium
Number of locations 1-5 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 150000 good estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 25-39 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 28-47 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.9 - - -

Population justification:

The most recent population survey conducted in 2011 found 34,226 nests on the Antipodes (Hisock and Chilvers 2014); on the Bounty Islands there were an estimated 26,000 nests in the same year (Miskelly 2013), leading to an estimated 60,226 nests in total. This would equate to 120,452 nesting individuals, but it is assumed that only around 80% of mature individuals engage in breeding each year, so the number of mature individuals is estimated to number c.150,000.

Trend justification: Population trends indicate a severe decline between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s (Davis 2013). On the Bounty Islands, estimated numbers were 115,000 pairs (Robertson and van Tets 1982) in 1978, apparently declining to 28,000 pairs by 1997, representing a 75% decline (Taylor 2000). However, the 1978 numbers have recently been called into question (Wilson and Mattern 2019). Population surveys conducted in 1997 (Clarke et al. 1998), 2004 (de Roy and Amey 2004), 2014 (J. Amey, unpublished data), and 2019 (T. Mattern, unpublished data) indicate that parts of the Bounty Island population might actually have been relatively stable for the last two decades. However, as surveys covered only small portions of the Bounty Island archipelago, an ongoing population decline cannot be ruled out definitively.

On the Antipodes Islands an estimated 115,000 breeding pairs were recorded in 1978, which declined extremely rapidly to 52,000 pairs by 1995 (Taylor, 2000). The rate of decline appears to have subsequently slowed somewhat; between 1995 and 2011 the number of penguin nests declined by 23% (Hiscock and Chilvers 2014), although this is still equivalent to a 61% decline over three generations (36 years, based on methods in Bird et al. [2020]) in this population. 

Overall it appears that the population decline apparent until the 1990s has since slowed somewhat, which corresponds to the trend observed in the sympatrically breeding Southern Rockhopper Penguins (Morrison et al. 2015). However, even if populations on Bounty Island had only declined from 28,000 pairs in 1978 to 26,000 pairs in 2011, the very rapid decline in the Antipodes still results in a decline of 52% over the past three generations (36 years). More reliable survey data is required to confirm the reduction in the rate of decline.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica V Extant Yes
Argentina V Extant
Australia V Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Zealand Bounty-Antipodes Plateau Marine IBA
New Zealand Antipodes Islands
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Bounty Islands
New Zealand Disappointment Island
New Zealand Campbell Island
New Zealand Antipodes Islands
New Zealand Bounty Islands
New Zealand Campbell Islands (nearshore)
New Zealand Campbell (offshore)
New Zealand Bounty Islands (nearshore)
New Zealand Bounty (offshore)
New Zealand Antipodes (offshore)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 75 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Eudyptes sclateri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2022.