EN
Elfin Woods Warbler Setophaga angelae



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Setophaga angelae (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Dendroica following AOU (1998 & supplements); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996).

 

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(ii,iii,v) B1ab(ii,iii,v); D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2016 Vulnerable D2
2012 Vulnerable D2
2008 Vulnerable D2
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass 7.699999809 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,200 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1800 medium estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.6 - - -

Population justification: The population has been estimated to number at least 1,800 mature individuals, based on censuses conducted using playback methods. This is roughly equivalent to at least 2,700 individuals in total.
Surveys by Arendt et al. (2013) in the El Yunque National Forest found a population density of 0.02 individuals/ha in elfin woodland and 0.2 individuals/ha in palo colarado forest in 2006. This protected area is estimated to contain 368 ha of elfin woodland and 3,441 ha of palo colorado forest (USFWS 2016). Using the above population densities and habitat areas, the population in the El Yunque National Forest is estimated to number c.700 individuals.
Based on habitat-specific population densities found by Gonzales (2008) and the estimated areas of each habitat within the Maricao forest (USFWS 2016), the population in the Maricao forest is estimated at c.2,000 individuals.
The population is estimated as 2,700 individuals, which equates to 1800 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is may have declined in recent years owing to habitat degradation.  A study by Arendt et al. (2013) at El Yunque National Forest found a decline from 0.2 to 0.02 individuals/ha in elfin woodland and a decline from 1 to 0.2 individuals/ha in palo colarado forest between 1989 and 2006 which may equate to a decline of 10-25% over 3 generations or 10 years. There is no indication that the population in Maricao Forest and adjacent land has declined, although habitat loss in the adjacent land is ongoing.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Puerto Rico (to USA) El Yunque
Puerto Rico (to USA) Maricao and Susúa

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 170 - 1030 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Setophaga angelae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/12/2017.