Eleonora's Falcon Falco eleonorae


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2015 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,090,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,890,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 29200-29600 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -

Population justification: In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the population is estimated at 14,300-14,500 pairs, which equates to 28,700-29,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The North African population is estimated at approximately 250 pairs or 500 mature individuals (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Therefore the overall population is estimated at 29,200-29,600 mature individuals.

Trend justification: In Europe, which holds a large proportion of the global population, the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria N Extant Yes
Benin V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Southern Territories V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan V Extant
Kenya N Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania V Extant
Mauritius V Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant
Réunion (to France) V Extant
Rwanda V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa V Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Algeria Îles Habibas
Croatia Offshore Islands
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Cape Aspro
Greece Agioi Theodoroi islet, Crete
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Anafi island
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Christiana and Aspronisi islets, Thira
Greece Dia island, Crete
Greece Diapontia islands (Othonoi, Ereikousa, Mathraki) and surrounding islets
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Falkonera, Velopoula and Karavia islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Gramvousa peninsula and Gramvouses and Pontikonisi islets, Crete
Greece Ikaria island
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Islets of western Limnos and cape Mourtzeflos
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Karpathian sea islets
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Kavalloi islets, Crete
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Koufonisi island, Crete
Greece Kythira island
Greece Mikres Kyklades island complex
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Northeastern peninsula of Crete
Greece Northern Sifnos
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Serifos island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Tinos island and surrounding islets
Greece Venetiko islet, Chios
Greece Western Milos, Antimilos and Polyaigos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Zakynthos island
Italy Eolie islands
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu
Italy Pantelleria
Italy San Pietro and Sant'Antioco islands
Morocco Archipel d'Essaouira
Morocco Canton Forestier de Sidi Bou Ghaba
Morocco Falaise Sidi-Moussa
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Cala Salada - Illa d'en Calders
Spain Columbretes islands
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain Famara crag
Spain Haría-Tabayesco
Spain Islets Vedrá and Vedranell
Spain Lanzarote islets
Spain Tagomago island
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Tunisia Archipel de la Galite
Tunisia El Feidja
Tunisia Ichkeul
Turkey Bodrum peninsula
Turkey Kizildag Izmir
Turkey Marmara Islands
Turkey Tahtalı Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3000 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Falco eleonorae. Downloaded from on 26/02/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/02/2020.