EN
Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bcde+3bcde A2bcde+3bcde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2bcde+3bcde
2014 Endangered A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2012 Endangered A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2008 Endangered A2b,c,d,e; A3b,c,d,e; A4b,c,d,e
2007 Endangered
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 2082 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 63,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 49,600,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 12000-38000 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 14 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 3,000-4,700 breeding pairs, equating to 6,000-9,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 18,000-57,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 12,000-38,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The species is declining in virtually all parts of its range, apparently for a number of different reasons. In India, it has declined by >90% in the last decade; European populations have declined by 50-79% over the last three generations. Western, eastern and southern African populations also appear to have declined significantly, as do Arabian populations (Jennings 2010).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Possibly Extinct Yes
Botswana V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) U Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire U Extant
Croatia N Possibly Extinct Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau U Extant
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho V Possibly Extinct
Libya N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Possibly Extinct Yes
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Possibly Extinct Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique V Extant
Myanmar V Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Possibly Extinct Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Possibly Extinct Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia V Extant Yes Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extinct Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda U Extant
Ukraine N Possibly Extinct Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Albania Gjirokastra
Armenia Dsegh
Armenia Gorayk
Armenia Jermook
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Armenia Meghri
Armenia Noravank
Armenia Tashir
Armenia Zangezoor
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Zuvand upland
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Krumovitza
Bulgaria Lomovete
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Gorges du Gardon
France Haute Cize : Pic d'Errozate et Forêt d'Orion
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut
Greece Antikhassia mountains and Meteora
Greece Area of Oriokastro, Lake Delvinaki, Meropis forest, Gormou valley and Mounts Kasidiaris and Douskon
Greece Central part of Zagori and Mount Mitsikeli
Greece Dadias-Dereiou-Aisimis forest
Greece Filiouri river valley and east Rodopi mountains
Greece Mount Paramithias
Greece Mounts Tsamanta, Filiaton, Pharmakovouni, and Megali Rahi
Greece Protected area of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Timfi (Gamila) and Smolikas mountains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas
Iraq Bakhma, Dukan and Darbandikhan dams
Iraq Benavi and Sararu
Iraq Dure (Dori Serguza)
Iraq Lake Tharthar and Al-Dhebaeji Fields
Iraq Ser Amadiya and Sulav Resort
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Israel Judean desert
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Madonie
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Jordan Dana
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum
Jordan Maghtas - Sweimeh
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor)
Jordan Petra
Jordan Wadi Mujib
Kazakhstan Aktau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Boshavija
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Demir Kapija Gorge
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Lake Tikvesh
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Mariovo
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Raec valley
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Taor Gorge
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Tikvesh Region
Oman Fahl Island
Oman Jabal al Akhdar
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Oman Masirah island
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Palestinian Authority Territories Ein Al-Oja
Palestinian Authority Territories Jerusalem wilderness
Palestinian Authority Territories Mar Saba - Wadi Qadron
Palestinian Authority Territories Um Al-Rihan
Portugal Côa valley
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Russia (European) Akhmet-Skala ridge
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Gunibskoye plateau
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Kezenoi-Am lake
Russia (European) Kurdzhips river valley
Russia (European) Orota depression
Russia (European) Outskirts of Kislovodsk
Russia (European) Ravine of Cherek-Balkarski river
Russia (European) Ravine of Gundelen-Tyzyl river
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Russia (European) Skalisti ridge between Urup and Maly Zelenchuk rivers
Russia (European) Sources of Kuma river
Russia (European) Sources of the Podkumok river
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Russia (European) Valley of Gizel'don river
Russia (European) Valley of Khasaut river, mountains B.Bermamyt and M.Bermamyt
Russia (European) Valley of Khodz' river
Russia (European) Valley of Urup river
Saudi Arabia Al-Habrow al-Arabi
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Saudi Arabia Jabal Aja and Northern Ha'il
Saudi Arabia Jabal al-Lawz
Saudi Arabia Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim
Senegal Dindefello Natural Reserve
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Suva mountain
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Alcarama mountain and Alhama river
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges
Spain Arlanza Valley-Peñas de Cervera
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Bujeo, Ojén, del Niño and Blanquilla mountain ranges
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Cazorla and Segura mountain ranges
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Ceuta
Spain Coast of Esquinzo-Puertito de Los Molinos
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares
Spain Cuenca mountain ranges
Spain Dos Ríos and Orba mountain ranges
Spain Duratón canyon
Spain Famara crag
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain Gully of Ajuí-Betancuria
Spain Izki mountains
Spain La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range)
Spain Lanzarote islets
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Leyre, Illón and San Miguel mountain ranges
Spain Llano Grande - Malpaís Grande - Malpaís Chico
Spain Moncayo mountain range
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Montaña Central de León
Spain Montaña Oriental Costera
Spain Montejo de la Vega-Riaza canyon
Spain Montsech and Montgai mountains
Spain Morella pass
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Obarenes mountains
Spain Oña and Tesla mountain ranges
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Pozo Negro mountain-Vigán
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Riaño
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero
Spain River Martín canyons and Arcos mountain range
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Sant Gervás mountains
Spain Santo Domingo-Riglos-Gratal
Spain Sierras de Lokiz, Urbasa y Andía
Spain Soba - Castro Valnera - Ordunte
Spain Sotoscueva - Ojo Guareña
Spain Tarifa
Spain Tiermes-Caracena
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Turbón-Espés-Sis
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges
Spain Upper Ebro and Rudrón canyons
Spain Upper sections of the rivers Tajo and Tajuña
Spain Valdegovía-Arcena mountain range
Spain Valdurrios-Serreta Negra and Los Rincones mountain ranges
Syria Abu Zad
Syria Jabal Abdul Aziz
Syria Jabal al-Bilas
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Syria Umm al-Tuyyur
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Turkey Kızılcahamam Forests
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Garashor
United Arab Emirates Jebel Hafit
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Bukantau Mountain Range
Uzbekistan Dzhum-Dzhum
Uzbekistan Mount Aktau
Uzbekistan Nuratau Range
Uzbekistan Pulatkhan Gorge
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Yemen Aden
Yemen Hajhir mountains, Socotra
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Yemen Jabal Bura
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Named species - Avipoxvirus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Neophron percnopterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/11/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/11/2017.