Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2abcde+3bcde+4abcde A2abcde+3bcde+4abcde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Endangered A2abcde+3bcde+4abcde
2019 Endangered A2bcde+3bcde
2016 Endangered A2bcde+3bcde
2014 Endangered A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2012 Endangered A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2008 Endangered A2b,c,d,e; A3b,c,d,e; A4b,c,d,e
2007 Endangered
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 2082 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 58,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 50,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 12400-36000 medium estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13.41 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 3,000-4,500 breeding pairs, equating to 6,100-9,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep.). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 12,400-36,000 mature individuals, roughly equating to 18,600-54,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The species is declining in virtually all parts of its range, apparently for a number of different reasons. European populations have declined by at least 10% over the last three generations (40.23 years [Bird et al. 2020]) (BirdLife International in prep.). In Spain, which with c.1,300 pairs may support as much as 40% of the European breeding population, the number of territories declined by at least 25% between 1987-2000 (i.e. equating to a decline of >50% over three generations) (Donázar 2004, Del Moral 2009), likely due to high mortality rates (Cortés-Avizanda et al. 2009). The Spanish population was estimated to be stable for the period 1998-2011 (BirdLife International 2015, Tauler et al. 2015), and the adjacent French population appears to be increasing (Lieury et al. 2015), although 2015 appeared to be a bad year there (Vulture Conservation Foundation 2016). Balkan populations are however still declining at 4-8% per year (equating to 81-97% over three generations), with the population in Greece having declined by 44-60% over 30 years (Xirouchakis and Tsiakiris 2009, Gruba? et al. 2014, Velevski et al. 2015).

Declines are reported from the Middle East (S. Aspinall in litt. 2005), e.g. 50-75% in Israel, however in Oman the population appears stable or increasing (J. Eriksen in litt. 2005; Al Bulushi et al. 2013; Angelov et al. 2013b; Angelov et al. 2020), although this may be more a reflection of count methods rather than genuine stability in the population. Around 1,900 birds are resident in a stable population on the island of Socotra (Porter and Suleiman 2012). The resident populations within Africa have declined by 5.9% per year over the past 29-36 years (equating to 91% over three generations) (Ogada et al. 2016), including those in Ethiopia and Djibouti (G. Mulholland in litt. 2006, Arkumarev et al. 2014), Kenya (Virani et al. 2011), and Angola and Namibia (where just 10 pairs remain) (R. Simmons in litt. 2006). Steep declines have also been reported on the Cape Verde islands (Clouet 2018). Declines in North Africa are estimated to be 50-79% over three generations (Garrido et al. in prep.). Across much of Africa residents are outnumbered by migrant European and probably Asian breeders (J. M. Thiollay in litt. 2006, I. Angelov in litt. 2012).  The species has gone Extinct in the region of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland (Taylor et al. 2015), and is Extinct as a breeding species in Namibia (Simmons 2015). Most critically, the species has undergone a catastrophic decline (>35% per year) since 1999 in India, where numbers detected on road transects declined by 68% between 2000 and 2003 (Cuthbert et al. 2006), but the recent ban on diclofenac may have arrested the decline of the Indian population (Galligan et al. 2014).

With rates of decline over three generations being >10% in Europe, 91% in the resident population in Africa, 50-79% in North Africa, and potentially >99% in India (but with a possible recent levelling off in this region), the global rate of decline is suspected to be 50-79%. As many of the threats causing these declines are ongoing, future rates of decline are suspected to be of a similar magnitude.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes Yes Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extinct Yes
Botswana V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
China (mainland) U Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extinct
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant
Croatia N Extinct Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho V Extinct
Libya N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Mali N Extant Yes Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Moldova N Possibly Extinct Yes
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extinct Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Mozambique V Extant
Myanmar V Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes Yes
Niger N Extant Yes Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes Yes Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Qatar V Extant
Romania N Extinct Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Possibly Extinct Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia V Extant Yes Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes Yes
South Africa N Extinct Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extinct Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
North Macedonia Kozhuf mountain and Boshava river
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Crna gorge
North Macedonia River Bregalnica
North Macedonia Babuna gorge, Topolka gorge, and Crn Kamen
Azerbaijan Pirgulu (Pirkuli)
Azerbaijan Turianchai
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Azerbaijan Mount Bazar-Duzu
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Mount Dalidag
Azerbaijan Mount Giamysh
Azerbaijan Gobustan area
Azerbaijan Mount Ilandag
Azerbaijan Mount Kargabazar and Mount Gush-gaya
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Kusari (Gusari) area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe
Azerbaijan Negram mountains
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Azerbaijan Shahbuz area
Azerbaijan Mount Shahdag
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Azerbaijan Zuvand upland
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs
Portugal Côa valley
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Madzharovo
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Bulgaria Harsovska Reka
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Turkey Kızılcahamam Forests
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Palestine Mar Saba - Wadi Qadron
Palestine Ein Al-Oja
Palestine Um Al-Rihan
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Central Zagori and mount Mitsikeli
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Mount Grammos
Greece Antichasia mountains and Meteora
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Russia (European) Akhmet-Skala ridge
Russia (European) Valley of Urup river
Russia (European) Kurdzhips river valley
Spain Líjar mountain range-Zaframagon crag
Spain River Martín canyons and Arcos mountain range
Spain Bajo Alcanadre-Serreta de Tramaced
Spain Montsech and Montgai mountains
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Sant Gervás mountains
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain Santo Domingo-Riglos-Gratal
Spain Dos Ríos and Orba mountain ranges
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Alcarama mountain and Alhama river
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain Cuenca mountain ranges
Spain Upper sections of the rivers Tajo and Tajuña
Spain Arlanza Valley-Peñas de Cervera
Spain River Lobos canyon
Spain Tiermes-Caracena
Spain Montejo de la Vega-Riaza canyon
Spain Duratón canyon
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle
Spain Obarenes mountains
Spain La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range)
Spain Oña and Tesla mountain ranges
Spain Upper Ebro and Rudrón canyons
Spain Humada-Peña Amaya
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor
Spain River Moros
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Valdegovía-Arcena mountain range
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Arnedillo-Isasa crag
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Sobrón canyon
Spain Izki mountains
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Riaño
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Peña de Francia
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Campo de Argañán
Spain Tietar valley
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Cazorla and Segura mountain ranges
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges
Spain Antequera mountain range-El Chorro
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain La Janda
Spain De la Plata mountain range
Spain Tarifa
Spain Bujeo, Ojén, del Niño and Blanquilla mountain ranges
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Ceuta
Spain San Juan de la Peña-Oroel crag
Spain Turbón-Espés-Sis
Spain Zuera mountains
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Valdurrios-Serreta Negra and Los Rincones mountain ranges
Spain Lower course of the river Huerva
Spain Belchite-Mediana
Spain River Guadalope
Spain Montes Universales-Albarracín mountain range
Spain River Jalón canyon
Spain Moncayo mountain range
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Spain East Gata mountain range
Spain Gabriel y Galán reservoir
Spain Alcántara reservoir-Cuatro Lugares
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain Morella pass
Spain Entrepeñas and Buendía reservoirs
Spain River Mesa canyons
Spain Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges
Spain Gorramendi mountain and Itxusi crags
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain Leyre, Illón and San Miguel mountain ranges
Spain Plasencia and San Bernabé mountain range
Spain Lanzarote islets
Spain Famara crag
Spain Haría-Tabayesco
Spain Tenegüime gully
Spain Lajares sandy plain-Cotillo-Ezquinzo
Spain Morro Tabaiba-Morro de los Rincones-Vallebrón mountains
Spain Gully of Ajuí-Betancuria
Spain Coast of Esquinzo-Puertito de Los Molinos
Spain Tarajalejo mountain range
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares
Spain Peninsula of Jandía
Spain El Médano coast
Spain Pozo Negro mountain-Vigán
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor)
Spain Río Cabras gully
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
France Haute Soule : Massif Forestier, Gorges d'Holzarte et d'Olhadubi
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Rive Gauche de la Vallée d'Aspe et Pic d'Anie
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Eth Turoun des Aureys
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Pic de l'Estibet et Mondragon
France Haute Cize : Pic d'Errozate et Forêt d'Orion
France Gorges du Gardon
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Cirque de Gavarnie
France Zones rupestres du Tarasconnais et massif d'Aston
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Bec de Crigne
France Basse Ardêche
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Basses Corbières
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Minervois
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
Italy Rocca Busambra
Italy Madonie
Italy Peloritani mountains
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Gravine
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Matese
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa
Italy Pollino
Italy Sicani mountains
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Gargano promontory
Italy Mount Pecoraro and Pizzo Cirina
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Murge
Italy Middle valley of Tagliamento river
Albania Vlora Bay, Karaburun Peninsula and Cika mountain
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Jerma
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
United Arab Emirates Jebel Hafeet
Afghanistan Jalalabad valley
Afghanistan Hari Rud valley
Afghanistan Salang Kotal
Afghanistan North-western steppe
Afghanistan Pech and Waygal valleys
Afghanistan Kole Hashmat Khan
Israel Judean desert
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Syria Golan Heights
Iraq Benavi and Sararu
Iraq Dure
Iraq Amedi and Sulav
Iraq Bakhma, Dukan and Darbandikhan dams
Iraq Tharthar Lake and Al-Dhebaeji Fields
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Jordan Wadi Mujib
Jordan Dana
Jordan Petra
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum
Jordan Jordan Valley
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Jabal al Akhdar
Oman Masirah island
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Oman Fahl Island
Palestine Jerusalem wilderness
Saudi Arabia Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim
Saudi Arabia Al-Habrow al-Arabi
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Saudi Arabia Jabal al-Lawz
Saudi Arabia Jabal Aja and Northern Ha'il
Syria Jabal al-Bilas
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Syria Abu Zad
Syria Jabal Abdul Aziz
Syria Umm al-Tuyyur
Yemen Jabal Bura
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Yemen Aden
Yemen Haggeher (Socotra)
Russia (European) Vicinity of Dakhovka
Russia (European) Kebyaktepe ridge
Russia (European) Samurski ridge
Russia (European) Kasumkentski reserve
Russia (European) Laman-Kam area
Russia (European) Orota depression
Russia (European) Valley of Khasaut river, mountains B.Bermamyt and M.Bermamyt
Russia (European) Skalisti ridge between Urup and Maly Zelenchuk rivers
Russia (European) Valley of Khodz' river
Russia (European) Talginskaya Valley
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Outskirts of Kislovodsk
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Krumovitza
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Armenia Dsegh
Armenia Gndasar
Armenia Gorayk
Armenia Jermook
Armenia Meghri
Armenia Noravank
Armenia Tashir
Armenia Zangezoor
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Hautes Corbières
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Crau
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Vallée de Melles, cols d'Aoueran et d'Artisagou et Mont Vallier
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Afghanistan Big Pamir
Afghanistan Small Pamir
North Macedonia Tikvesh Region
Iran, Islamic Republic of Akh Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kavir region
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khosh-Yeilagh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Touran
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shirvan area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sarani
Iran, Islamic Republic of Tandoureh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hari Rud valley near Sarrakhs
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-i Gaz
Iran, Islamic Republic of Assadabad plain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mooteh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gandoman marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bamou National Park
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khabr-va-Rouchoon Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nakhilu, Morghu and Ummal Karam islands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormoz island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Israel Northern Arava valley
Jordan Shaumari
Jordan Wadi Araba
Kuwait Al-Abraq Al-Khabari
Kuwait Al-Batin Park
Oman Sun Farms, Sohar
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
Saudi Arabia At-Tubayq
Saudi Arabia Mahazat as-Sayd
Saudi Arabia Jabal Fayfa
Saudi Arabia Wadi Jawwah
Syria Ras al-Ayn
Syria Wadi al-Azib
Syria Jabal al-Bishri
Syria Wadi al-Qarn - Burqush
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Yemen Desert west of Al-Ghayda
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Lomovete
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Russia (European) Sources of Kuma river
Lebanon Yammouneh Nature Reserve
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Chegemskoye ravine
Russia (European) Ravine of Eshkakon river
Russia (European) Sources of the Podkumok river
Russia (European) Marinskaya cuesta of Skalisti ridge
Russia (European) Malka river ravine
Russia (European) Ravine of Gundelen-Tyzyl river
Russia (European) Sources of Khudes river
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Garashor
Russia (European) Kezenoi-Am lake
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Russia (European) Gunibskoye plateau
Russia (European) Valley of Gizel'don river
Russia (European) Ravine of Cherek-Balkarski river
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Kazakhstan Aktau cliff faces
Yemen Wadi Di Negehen (Socotra)
Uzbekistan Bukantau Mountain Range
Uzbekistan Pulatkhan Gorge
Uzbekistan Mount Aktau
Kazakhstan Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression
Italy Pollino and Orsomarso
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
North Macedonia River Raec valley
North Macedonia Taor Gorge
North Macedonia Osogovo Mountains
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
North Macedonia Boshavija
North Macedonia Lake Tikvesh
North Macedonia Mariovo
Uzbekistan Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Dzhum-Dzhum
Yemen Limestone plateau above Siko village, Socotra
Uzbekistan Nuratau Range
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Ethiopia Ankober - Debre Sina escarpment
Ethiopia Lake Awassa
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain Alcudia valley and mountain range
Spain Llano Grande - Malpaís Grande - Malpaís Chico
Spain Montaña Central de León
Spain Sotoscueva - Ojo Guareña
Spain Montaña Oriental Costera
Spain Sierras de Lokiz, Urbasa y Andía
Spain Soba - Castro Valnera - Ordunte
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Jordan Maghtas - Sweimeh
Turkey Dicle Valley
Armenia Haghartsin
Senegal Dindefello Natural Reserve
Djibouti Kadda Guéïni - Doumêra
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Egypt Suez
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Yemen Diksam (Socotra)
Yemen Ra's Hebaq, Socotra
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt El Qa plain
Saudi Arabia Taif escarpment
Palestine Ein Al-Fashkha
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Syria Mount Hermon
Algeria Théniet El Had
Algeria Massif Djurdjura
Tunisia Jbel el Haouaria
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Iraq Wadi Al-W’eir & Sh'eeb Abu-Talha
Iraq Qadissiya Lake
Iraq Jabal Makhool
Iraq Ajeel Himreen Hills
Iraq Ga'ara
Iraq Atrush and Bania Area
Iraq Ahmed Awa
Iraq Bakhma and Bradost Mountain
Iraq Barzan Area and Gali Balnda
Iraq Chami Razan
Iraq Darbandikhan Lake
Iraq De Lezha
Iraq Dukan Lake
Iraq Duhok Lake
Iraq Doli Smaquli and Ashab
Iraq Sargalu
Iraq Gara Mountain and Garagu
Iraq Gali Zanta and Garbeesh
Iraq Zawita
Iraq Taq Taq
Iraq Mosul Lake
Iraq Kuradawe and Waraz
Iraq Parazan
Iraq Kalar Area
Iraq Hazarmerd
Iraq Penjween
Iraq Peramagroon Mountain
Iraq Qara Dagh
Syria Sabkhet Ar-Rawad
Yemen Jabal Ma'alah / Ma'alah Plateau, Socotra
Yemen North coastal plain: airport to Di Selmeho / Ghubbah (Socotra)
Yemen Noged Plain, Socotra
Yemen Wadi Ayhaft, Socotra
Yemen Rewgid and Regid plateaus, Socotra
Yemen Samha
Yemen Falang - Momi coast and cliffs (Socotra)
Yemen Firmihin near Jabal Keseslah, Socotra
Yemen Hamaderoh plateau and scarp, Socotra
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen Kawkaban - Shibam
Yemen Mahwit
Yemen Haraz mountains
Yemen Ma'rib - Naqil Fardah - Baraqish
Yemen Jabal al-Nabi Shu'ayb
Serbia Suva mountain
Iraq Mangesh
Iraq Amedi and Sulav
Niger Termit Mountains
Kenya Lolldaiga-Mukogodo-Ewaso N'yiro
Turkey Akdağ - Amasya
Albania Gjirokastra
Turkey Küpeli Mountain
Turkey Feke
Turkey Eruh Mountains
Turkey Aras Vadisi
Morocco Jbel Moussa
Turkey Acıkır Steppes
Turkey Aladağlar
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Turkey Ermenek Valley
Turkey Nemrut Mountain
Turkey Sündiken Mountains
Turkey Türkmenbaba Mountain
Greece Central Rodopi mountains and Nestos valley
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Tyrnavos area
Greece Ioannina city
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Zakrou, Crete
Russia (European) Teberdinski Nature Reserve
Yemen North slopes of the Haggeher Mountains (Socotra)
Yemen Hadiboh estuaries of Hadiboh, Sheck and Sirhan (Socotra)
Yemen Wadi Merkoh (Socotra)
Italy Sicani mountains, Rocca Busambra and Ficuzza forest
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Afghanistan Bande Amir
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Algeria Chott El Hodna
Algeria Djebel Babor et Tababort
Lebanon Semi-arid north-western Anti-Lebanon
Lebanon Ehden - Bcharre - Tannourine / Makmal - Ainata
Lebanon Rihane - Chouf - Ammiq - Sannine
Turkmenistan Garabil
Turkmenistan Kurendag - Garagoz
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Sumbar
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Turkmenistan Akjagaya
Turkmenistan Tejen
Turkmenistan Garachop
Turkmenistan Repetek
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Turkmenistan Uzboy
Turkmenistan Koytendag
Uzbekistan Kugitang and Baysuntay Mountains
Uzbekistan Gissar State Nature Reserve
Tajikistan Turkestan (TJ)
Uzbekistan Uzbek Babatag
India Guru Ghasidas Tiger Reserve
India Dighal wetland
India Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary
India Megamalai Mountains
India Melagiris
India Vijay Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sardar Samand Lake
India Simbalbara National Park
India Surajpur wetland
India Pilibhit Tiger Reserve
India Kharda Dam
India Jor Beer
India Mahaveer Swami Wildlife Sanctuary (Lalitpur)
India Jawahar Sagar Sanctuary
India Badopal Lake
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Karnala Bird Sanctuary
India Mahendri Reserve Forest
India Sirpur Lake
India Pawalgarh Conservation Reserve
India Naina Devi Himalayan Bird Conservation Reserve
India Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
India Nandhour Wildlife Sanctuary
India Noorukuppalakonda Reserve Forest
India Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve
India Kachhudah Lake and Mahananda River Course
India North Karanpura Valley
India Keshopur Miani (or Chhamb) Community Reserve
India Amboli-Tilari Reserve Forest
India Hesaraghatta Lake
India Hoskote Kere
India Thippagondanahalli Reservoir
Senegal Parc National de Basse Casamance
India Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary
Ethiopia Mille-Sardo Wildlife Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Savanna Dry major resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Gyps fulvus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avipoxvirus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Other
Other options Other threat Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Neophron percnopterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2022.