Echo Parakeet Alexandrinus eques


Fogell, D.J., Groombridge, J.J., Tollington, S., Canessa, S., Henshaw, S., Zuel, N., Jones, C.G., Greenwood, A. and Ewen, J.G. 2019. Hygiene and biosecurity protocols reduce infection prevalence but do not improve fledging success in an endangered parrot. Scientific Reports 9: 4779.

Greenwood, A. G. 1996. The Echo responds - a partnership between conservation biology, aviculture and veterinary science. PsittaScene 8(1): 6-7.

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Jones, C. G. 2010. Back from the brink: the Echo Parakeet story. PsittaScene 22(3): 3-5.

Jones, C. G.; Malham, J.; Reuleaux, A.; Richards, H.; Raisin, C.; Tollington, S.; Zuel, N.; Chowrimootoo, A.; Tatayah, V. 2013. Echo Parakeet Psittacula eques. In: Safford, R. J.; Hawkins, A. F. A. (ed.), The Birds of Africa. Vol. VIII: The Malagasy Region, pp. 517-522. Christopher Helm, London.

Jones, C. G.; Swinnerton, K.; Thorsen, M.; Greenwood, A. 1998. The biology and conservation of the Echo Parakeet Psittacula eques of Mauritius. Proceedings of the IVth International Parrot Convention: 110-123.

Jones, C.G. 1987. The larger land-birds of Mauritius. In: Diamond, A.W. (ed.), Studies of Mascarene Island birds, pp. 208-300. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Jones, C.G. and Hartley, J. 1995. A conservation project on Mauritius and Rodrigues: an overview and bibliography. Dodo: Journal of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 31: 40-65.

Kundu, S., Faulkes, C.G., Greenwood, A.G., Jones, C.G., Kaiser, P., Lyne, O.D., Black, S.A., Chowrimootoo, A. and Groombridge, J.J. 2012. Tracking viral evolution during a disease outbreak: the rapid and complete selective sweep of a circovirus in the endangered Echo Parakeet. Journal of Virology 86(9): 5221-5229.

Marshall, T. 1997. The Echo bouncing back. AFA Watchbird 24: 42-43.

Richards, H. 2010. The 500 mark: a landmark season. PsittaScene 22(3): 6-10.

Safford, R.J.; Jones, C.G. 1998. Strategies for land-bird conservation on Mauritius. Conservation Biology 12: 169-176.

Thorsen, M.; Jones, C. 1998. The conservation status of Echo Parakeet Psittacula eques of Mauritius. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 5(2): 122-126.

Tollington, S., Greenwood, A., Jones, C.G., Hoeck, P., Chowrimootoo, A., Smith, D., Richards, H., Tatayah, V. and Groombridge, J.J. 2015. Detailed monitoring of a small but recovering population reveals sub-lethal effects of disease and unexpected interactions with supplemental feeding. Journal of Animal Ecology 84(4): 969-977.

Tollington, S.; Jones, C. G.; Greenwood, A.; Tatyah, V.; Raisin, C.; Burke, T.; Dawson, D. A.; Groombridge, J. J. 2013. Long-term, fine-scale temporal patterns of genetic diversity in the restored Mauritius parakeet reveal genetic impacts of management and associated demographic effects on reintroduction programmes. Biol. Conserv. 161: 28-38.

Further resources

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

This species has been identified as an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) trigger - click here for more information

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Alexandrinus eques. Downloaded from on 19/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 19/08/2022.