NT
Eastern Whip-poor-will Antrostomus vociferus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Antrostomus vociferus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus CaprimulgusCaprimulgus vociferus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was previously split into C. vociferus and C. arizonae following AOU (2010).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2ac+3c+4ac
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2011 Least Concern
2008 Not Recognised
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,180,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,350,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1800000 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.6 - - -

Population justification: Rosenberg et al. (2016) estimate the population size to be 1,800,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification:

Rosenberg et al. (2016) gives two different values for the population reduction between 1970 and 2014: 69% and 67%. Assuming declines have been at a similar rate across this time period, this would equate to a decline of 36.1% or 34.5% over three generations (16.8 years) respectively. Christmas Bird Count data from 1966-2017 also shows an annual decline of 2.15% (1.20-3.21%), equating to a reduction of 30.58% (18.33-42.18%) over three generations (T. Meehan in litt. 2018), while Canadian Breeding Bird Survey data suggests an annual 3% decline (Mills 2018). However, data from Sauer et al. (2017) suggest that rates of decline may have slowed over recent years. An extrapolated trend between 2001 and 2015 to 2018 gives an estimated annual decrease of 1.67% (0.15 to 2.91%) (Sauer et al. 2017). This would equate to a reduction of 24.6% (2.5-39.1%) over three generations, assuming exponential decline. However, 2005-2015 trends from Sauer et al. (2017) show a non-significant decline of 1.29% per year (between 2.94% decline to 0.71% increase), which would roughly equate to a 19.6% decrease (39.4% decrease to 12.6% increase) over three generations. Given there is some slight uncertainty, and threats are likely to continue into the future the rate of decline has been tentatively placed here in the range 20-29% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Belize N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Mexico N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mexico Cerros de San Cristóbal de las Casas
Mexico Cerros de Chalchihuitán
Canada Port Franks Forested Dunes

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 3100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Antrostomus vociferus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021.