Eastern Red-necked Araçari Pteroglossus bitorquatus


Justification of Red List Category

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, it is suspected that the population of this newly-split species will decline by over 50% over the next three generations, and it has therefore been classified as Endangered.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. 1996) or common .

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 45.6-57.8% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (21 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Although the species shows a degree of tolerance of habitat degradation and fragmentation (A. Lees in litt. 2011), it is nevertheless suspected to decline by 50-79% over three generations.

Distribution and population

Pteroglossus bitorquatus occurs in east-central South America, restricted to the area south of the Amazon. Subspecies reichenowi occurs in Brazil between Rio Tapajós and Rio Tocantins, south as far as north Mato Grosso. The nominate subspecies bitorquatus is also limited to Brazil, with a range encompassing Marajó Island and the area between Rio Tocantins in the west, and Maranhão in the east (del Hoyo et al. 2002).


This species inhabits moist tropical forest, gallery forest and some cerrado (dry savanna woodland) up to c.550 m, and appears to show some tolerance of secondary habitats (del Hoyo et al. 2002, Portes et al. 2011, Lima et al. 2014, Short et al. 2016).


Although the species shows some tolerance of habitat fragmentation and degradation, the extent of projected deforestation in its known range is sufficient to pose a threat (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011, A. Lees in litt. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Occurs within 2903 km2 Gurupi Biological Reserve (Lima et al. 2014). The nominate taxon is considered Vulnerable at the national level (Silveira and Straube 2008, MMA 2014) and Endangered in the state of Pará. 

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.


36 cm. Small, colourful toucan. Green and yellow with a red rump, red nape and upper back, and a broad red chest patch.


Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Sharpe, C J

Lees, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Pteroglossus bitorquatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/02/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/02/2019.