Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 38,400,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.6 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population was estimated to number 1,300-1,900 breeding pairs, equating to 2,500-3,800 mature individuals. Recent population estimates from Russia and Kazakhstan suggest the global population may exceed 10,000 mature individuals, but in light of criticism of these estimates the population is precautionarily retained in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals here. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification:

The European population (comprising c.30% of the global range) is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015), though local increases may be partly due to immigration as well as increased fecundity and survival (Demerdzhiev et al. 2015). Recent reports from Russia and Kazakhstan indicate these populations may be stable, with some local population increases (I. Karyakin in litt. 2016) however, these reports need further confirmation as the population in Russia is suspected to undergo a decline in the future due to the presence of threats at breeding sites. As such, the global population of this species is precautionarily estimated to remain in decline, owing to habitat loss and exploitation across its range.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Cameroon V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus V Extant Yes Yes
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy V Extant
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Lithuania V Extant
Macao (China) N Extant Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Malaysia V Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Singapore V Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia V Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Togo V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Azerbaijan Alazani river valley
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Ismailly area
Azerbaijan Karayazi forest
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Azerbaijan Shamkhor area
Bangladesh Teknaf Game Reserve
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Bogda (Tian Chi)
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Changdao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Changtang plateau
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Dongzhaigang
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Eastern Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Funiu Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gongliu spruce forest
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Jiulingshan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Jonê
China (mainland) Kunes forest
China (mainland) Lanbowan–Qilihe Wetland
China (mainland) Laotieshan
China (mainland) Loess Plateau in western Gansu
China (mainland) Longshan section of Nonggang
China (mainland) Mori Grassland
China (mainland) Mount Tuomuer Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Oasis and Desert in Hami
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Orqohan
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shiwandashan
China (mainland) Song Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tacheng (Qoqek) area
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xidamingshan
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Djibouti Kadda Guéïni - Doumêra
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Egypt El Qa plain
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt Suez
Ethiopia Bale Mountains National Park
Georgia Adjara-Imereti Ridge
Georgia Alazani Valley
Georgia Algeti
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Jandari Lake
Georgia Kvernaki Ridge
Georgia Lower Kura Valley
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Börzsöny
Hungary Bükk
Hungary Del-Hevesi-sik
Hungary Gerecse
Hungary Hernád Valley
Hungary Heves Plain
Hungary Mátra
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Basai wetlands
India Bhal area
India Corbett Tiger Reserve
India Dachigam National Park
India Dhauludhar Wildlife Sanctuary and McLeod Gunj
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands
India Flamingo City
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gorumara National Park
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
India Kaziranga National Park
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Lava - Neora Valley National Park
India Lingambudhi Lake and environs
India Madhav National Park
India Mahul - Sewree Creek
India Mechuka - Monigong - Jorgging
India Naliya Grassland (Lala Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary)
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Nameri National Park
India Nandur Madhmeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Navegaon National Park
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Ranthambore National Park and Tiger Reserve
India Sariska Tiger Reserve
India Sultanpur National Park
India Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Velavadar National Park
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Israel Hula valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Western Negev
Jordan Azraq
Jordan Burqu'
Jordan Irbid - Mafraq plains
Jordan Madaba - Hisban
Jordan Shaumari
Kazakhstan Alekseevskie steppe pine forests
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Iskrinskie Pine Forests
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan North-western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Kazakhstan Uil River and Taysoygan Sands
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Urda Sands
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau
Kazakhstan Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kuwait Al-Batin Park
Kuwait Al-Jahra Pool Nature Reserve
Kuwait Jal Az-Zor
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Ovche Pole
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Preod-Gjugjance
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Zletovska valley
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Tikvesh Region
Mongolia Airkhan Lake
Mongolia Bulgan River
Mongolia Bulgan Tal
Mongolia Erdenesant Mountains
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Tarialan
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Langtang National Park
Nepal Makalu Barun National Park
Nepal Sagarmatha National Park
Oman Khawr Hassan
Oman Khawr Rouri
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Sun Farms, Sohar
Oman Wadi Darbat
Pakistan Drigh Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Pakistan Indus Waterfowl Refuge
Pakistan Jubo Ramsar Site
Pakistan Keti Bundar North Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Kirthar National Park (including Hub Dam)
Pakistan Lal Sohanra National Park
Pakistan Manchar Lake
Pakistan Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Pakistan Ucchali Wetland Complex
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Micleşti wood
Russia (Asian) Balaganskaya steppe
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe
Russia (Asian) Belozersk lakes
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains
Russia (Asian) Ol'khon area
Russia (Asian) Selenga delta
Russia (Asian) South Baikal migratory corridor
Russia (Asian) Tunkin valley
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Aleyskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Anuyskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Arkaim
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat
Russia (Central Asian) Charyshskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Cheka mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Gornaya Kolyvan'
Russia (Central Asian) Interfluve of the rivers Small and Big Karatanka
Russia (Central Asian) Kanskaya Steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Kornilovsky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Krasnoschekovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kulundinskaya forest band
Russia (Central Asian) Loktevskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Mountain of the Checka
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the Uy river
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Russia (Central Asian) Proslaukhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Redut' pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Tanater-Rublevo Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) The top part of pools of the rivers Big Karaganka and the rivers Syntasty
Russia (Central Asian) Tobol pine forests near Proryvnoye village
Russia (Central Asian) Tri Gusikhi
Russia (Central Asian) Tundyt mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Uzkaya Steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Vicinities of settlement Kalininsky
Russia (Central Asian) Vicinities of settlement Rymniksky
Russia (European) Aiskiye yary
Russia (European) Andreyaul'ski reserve
Russia (European) Bakalinski forest
Russia (European) Baksanskoye ravine
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Bel'skaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Berkubinski forest
Russia (European) Birskaya flood-plain of river Belaya
Russia (European) Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Bulukhta area
Russia (European) Buninski forest
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest
Russia (European) Chegemskoye ravine
Russia (European) Cheremshanski forest
Russia (European) Cherkaski reserve
Russia (European) Danilovski forest
Russia (European) Ergeninskaya area
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Alatyr' river in vicinity of Ardatov
Russia (European) Forest-steppe Gyul'chachak (Peony forest-steppe)
Russia (European) Ichalkovski
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain
Russia (European) Irendyk ridge
Russia (European) Kabardino-Balkarski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Kaltasinski forest
Russia (European) Karabash-Kudashskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Karginskiye hills
Russia (European) Khoper Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Khrenovski forest
Russia (European) Khulamskoye ravine
Russia (European) Khvalynski National Park
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Russia (European) Kuznetski forest
Russia (European) Laman-Kam area
Russia (European) Levo-Dobrinskaya valley
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Malka river ravine
Russia (European) Maly Nakas ridge
Russia (European) Mishkinski forest
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Ai river
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Sakmara river
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Zilim river
Russia (European) Nikifarovski forest
Russia (European) Oktyabr'ski forest
Russia (European) Orenburgski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Outskirts of Kislovodsk
Russia (European) Pis'myanskiye Gori area
Russia (European) Prisyun'ski forest
Russia (European) Privolzhskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Ravine of Eshkakon river
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Sengileyevskiye mountain
Russia (European) Shaitan-Tau ridge
Russia (European) Sharanski Bors
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (European) Shugurovskoye plateau
Russia (European) Siniye mountains
Russia (European) Snake hills
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river
Russia (European) Sources of Alimbet river and Aktykyl ridge
Russia (European) Sources of Khudes river
Russia (European) Sources of the Podkumok river
Russia (European) Staromainskiy forest and bay
Russia (European) Stepan Rasin Rock
Russia (European) Steppe valley of Sakmara river
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Tashlinski forest
Russia (European) Tazlarovskiye hills
Russia (European) Teberdinski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Ufimskoye plateau
Russia (European) Usen'-Ivanovski forest
Russia (European) Valley of Khasaut river, mountains B.Bermamyt and M.Bermamyt
Russia (European) Vedeneevsk pine forest
Russia (European) Verkhnechegemskaya depression
Russia (European) Voronezhski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Watershead of Malaya Sviyaga river
Russia (European) Watershed of Bel'skaya and Nugush rivers
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Russia (European) Zilairskoye Prisakmar'ye
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Al-Habrow al-Arabi
Saudi Arabia Harrat al-Harrah
Saudi Arabia Mahazat as-Sayd
Saudi Arabia Wadi Jawwah
Serbia Fruska gora
Slovakia Kosice valley
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Tríbec
Slovakia Vychodoslovenska plain
South Korea Cheolwon basin
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
South Korea Junam reservoir
South Korea Yeongam-ho lake
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Turkey Bey Mountains
Turkey Beynam Forests
Turkey Çığlıkara Forests (and Avlan Lake)
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Sündiken Mountains
Turkey Türkmenbaba Mountain
Turkey Tuz Lake
Turkey Yeniçağa Lake
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest
Ukraine Katran-Yakkan-Tepe Mountain (Karabi Yajla)
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez
Yemen Aden
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Yemen Kawkaban - Shibam
Yemen Ta'izz wadis

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3900 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Aquila heliaca. Downloaded from on 19/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 19/04/2019.