VU
Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2016 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 14,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 41,800,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.6 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population was estimated to number 1,300-1,900 breeding pairs, equating to 2,500-3,800 mature individuals. Recent population estimates from Russia and Kazakhstan suggest the global population may exceed 10,000 mature individuals, but in light of criticism of these estimates the population is precautionarily retained in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals here. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification:

The European population (comprising c.30% of the global range) is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015), though local increases may be partly due to immigration as well as increased fecundity and survival (Demerdzhiev et al. 2015). Recent reports from Russia and Kazakhstan indicate these populations may be stable, with some local population increases (I. Karyakin in litt. 2016) however, these reports need further confirmation as the population in Russia is suspected to undergo a decline in the future due to the presence of threats at breeding sites. As such, the global population of this species is precautionarily estimated to remain in decline, owing to habitat loss and exploitation across its range.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Cameroon V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus V Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes Yes
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy V Extant
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Lithuania V Extant
Macao (China) N Extant Yes
Malaysia V Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Singapore V Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia V Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Togo V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Adelphoi Forest - Papoutsa
Cyprus Pafos Forest
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Crna gorge
North Macedonia River Bregalnica
North Macedonia Babuna gorge, Topolka gorge, and Crn Kamen
Serbia Vršačke Planine
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Fruska gora
Azerbaijan Karayazi forest
Azerbaijan Turianchai
Azerbaijan Alazani river valley
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Akstafa-chai valley
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Mount Giamysh
Azerbaijan Ismailly area
Azerbaijan Mount Kargabazar and Mount Gush-gaya
Azerbaijan Kusari (Gusari) area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Azerbaijan Mount Shahdag
Azerbaijan Shamkhor area
Azerbaijan Sheki upland
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Strandzha
Romania Niculitel and Babadag forest
Romania Bicaz gorge and Hăşmaş Mountains
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Dobron forest
Turkey Beynam Forests
Turkey Göksu Delta
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Kythira island
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Hungary Mátra
Hungary Gerecse
Hungary Aggtelek Karst
Hungary Bükk
Hungary Zemplén Mountains
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Börzsöny
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Bihar Plain
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Heves Plain
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Siniye mountains
Russia (European) Oktyabr'ski forest
Russia (European) Levo-Dobrinskaya valley
Russia (European) Steppe valley of Sakmara river
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Sakmara river
Russia (European) Nikifarovski forest
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest
Russia (European) Tashlinski forest
Russia (European) Cheremshanski forest
Russia (European) Khoper Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Voronezhski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Khrenovski forest
Russia (European) Ichalkovski
Russia (European) Kulikovski forest
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Russia (European) Valley complex of Moksha and Oka rivers
Russia (European) Kalachskaya Loop of Don River
Russia (European) Danilovski forest
Russia (European) Secretevskiye sands
Russia (European) Kuznetski forest
Russia (European) Kalitvenski forest
Russia (European) Gorodishchenski forest
Russia (European) Privolzhskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Vad river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Alatyr' river in vicinity of Ardatov
Russia (European) Sengileyevskiye mountain
Russia (European) Watershed of Bel'skaya and Nugush rivers
Russia (European) Yamantau mountain
Russia (European) Iremel'ski mountain
Russia (European) Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski
Russia (European) Khvalynski National Park
Russia (European) Stepan Rasin Rock
Russia (European) Teberdinski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Orenburgski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Watershed between Sura and Barysh rivers
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Middle valley of Tagliamento river
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Serbia Cer mountain
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovakia Tríbeč
Slovakia Vihorlat
Slovakia Burda
Slovakia Považský Inovec
Serbia Derdap gorge
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Georgia Algeti
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Djibouti Kadda Guéïni - Doumêra
Egypt Suez
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Egypt El Qa plain
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Ethiopia Bale Mountains National Park
North Macedonia Bistrentsi fishponds
North Macedonia River Zletovska valley
North Macedonia Tikvesh Region
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Bilogir'ya
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
Ukraine Katran-Yakkan-Tepe Mountain (Karabi Yajla)
Turkey Yeniçağa Lake
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Israel Judean foothills
Israel Western Negev
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Hula valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah
Iraq Gharraf River
Iraq Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah
Iraq Central Marshes
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Jordan Shaumari
Jordan Madaba - Hisban
Jordan Burqu'
Jordan Azraq
Kuwait Jal Az-Zor
Kuwait Al-Jahra Pool Nature Reserve
Kuwait Al-Batin Park
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Wadi Darbat
Oman Khawr Rouri
Oman Khawr Hassan
Oman Sun Farms, Sohar
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Mahazat as-Sayd
Saudi Arabia Harrat al-Harrah
Saudi Arabia Al-Habrow al-Arabi
Saudi Arabia Wadi Jawwah
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Yemen Aden
Yemen Kawkaban - Shibam
Vietnam Thai Thuy
Vietnam Tam Dao
Vietnam Cuc Phuong
Russia (European) Alagirskoye i Kurtatinskoye ravines (Severo-Osetinski (North Osetin) Nature Reserve)
Russia (European) Zilairskoye Prisakmar'ye
Russia (European) Ufimskoye plateau
Russia (European) Kaltasinski forest
Russia (European) Sharanski Bors
Russia (European) Shaitan-Tau ridge
Russia (European) Aiskiye yary
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Ai river
Russia (European) Usen'-Ivanovski forest
Russia (European) Tazlarovskiye hills
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Zilim river
Russia (European) Bakalinski forest
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Kasumkentski reserve
Russia (European) Laman-Kam area
Russia (European) Berkubinski forest
Russia (European) Valley of Khasaut river, mountains B.Bermamyt and M.Bermamyt
Russia (European) Manoilinskaya steppe
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Russia (European) Andreyaul'ski reserve
Russia (European) Valley of Urup river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Sura river
Russia (European) Kabardino-Balkarski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Irendyk ridge
Russia (European) Maly Nakas ridge
Bangladesh Teknaf Game Reserve
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Laotieshan
China (mainland) Orqohan
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley
China (mainland) Tacheng (Qoqek) area
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Bogda (Tian Chi)
China (mainland) Mori Grassland
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Kunes forest
China (mainland) Gongliu spruce forest
China (mainland) Oasis and Desert in Hami
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Mount Tuomuer Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Changtang plateau
China (mainland) Western Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Eastern Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Loess Plateau in western Gansu
China (mainland) Jonê
China (mainland) Tongbiguan
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Song Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Changdao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Funiu Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heyang Huang He Wetlands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Xidamingshan
China (mainland) Longshan section of Nonggang
China (mainland) Shiwandashan
China (mainland) Dongzhaigang
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Bulgan River
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Airkhan Lake
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Thailand Doi Inthanon
Thailand Nanthaburi
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Thailand Khao Sam Roi Yot
Thailand Lower Central Basin
China (mainland) Lanbowan–Qilihe Wetland
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Pakistan Drigh Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Pakistan Manchar Lake
Pakistan Jubo Ramsar Site
Pakistan Indus Waterfowl Refuge
Pakistan Ucchali Wetland Complex
Pakistan Lal Sohanra National Park
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Keti Bundar North Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Kirthar National Park (including Hub Dam)
Pakistan Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary
Russia (Asian) Belozersk lakes
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains
Russia (Asian) Selenga delta
Russia (Asian) Tunkin valley
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Asian) Ol'khon area
Russia (Asian) South Baikal migratory corridor
Russia (Asian) Balaganskaya steppe
Laos Dong Khanthung
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Laos Nakai Plateau
India Mechuka - Monigong - Jorgging
India Kaziranga National Park
India Nameri National Park
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Bhal area
India Flamingo City
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Naliya Grassland (Lala Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary)
India Velavadar National Park
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Dhauludhar Wildlife Sanctuary and McLeod Gunj
India Basai wetlands
India Sultanpur National Park
India Dachigam National Park
India Lingambudhi Lake and environs
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands
India Mahul - Sewree Creek
India Nandur Madhmeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Navegaon National Park
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands
India Madhav National Park
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Ranthambore National Park and Tiger Reserve
India Sariska Tiger Reserve
India Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Corbett Tiger Reserve
India Gorumara National Park
India Lava - Neora Valley National Park
South Korea Cheolwon basin
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Yeongam-ho lake
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
South Korea Junam reservoir
Georgia Alazani Valley
Georgia Jandari Lake
Georgia Kvernaki Ridge
Georgia Lower Kura Valley
Russia (European) Outskirts of Kislovodsk
Russia (European) Sviyago-Kubninskaya forest-steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Volchihinskay
Russia (Central Asian) Tanater-Rublevo Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Pine forest at village Zverinogolovskoe
Russia (Central Asian) Redut' pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Tobol pine forests near Proryvnoye village
Russia (Central Asian) Mouth of the Uy river
Russia (Central Asian) Bottomland rivers Miass at village Zharnikovo
Russia (Central Asian) Interfluve of the rivers Small and Big Karatanka
Russia (Central Asian) Arkaim
Russia (Central Asian) Vicinities of settlement Kalininsky
Russia (Central Asian) Tundyt mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Mountain of the Checka
Russia (Central Asian) Tri Gusikhi
Russia (Central Asian) The top part of pools of the rivers Big Karaganka and the rivers Syntasty
Russia (Central Asian) Vicinities of settlement Rymniksky
Russia (Central Asian) Kornilovsky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Kanskaya Steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Uzkaya Steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Charyshskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Loktevskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kulundinskaya forest band
Russia (Central Asian) Gornaya Kolyvan'
Russia (Central Asian) Krasnoschekovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Anuyskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Aleyskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kasmalinskaya and Barnaulskaya forest bands
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Togusak valley
Russia (Central Asian) Kyzil-Chilik valley
Russia (European) Bel'skaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Okhlebininskaya flood-plain of river Belaya
Russia (European) Birskaya flood-plain of river Belaya
Russia (European) Mishkinski forest
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area
Russia (Central Asian) Shartymka valley
Russia (Central Asian) Parshivye mountains
Russia (Central Asian) Cheka mountain
Georgia Adjara-Imereti Ridge
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Derventski Heights
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Zheltoranga
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (Central Asian) Proslaukhinskaya
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Topol'noye lake
Russia (European) Ichalkovski forest
Russia (European) Forest-steppe Gyul'chachak (Peony forest-steppe)
Russia (European) Karginskiye hills
Russia (European) Vicinity of Eruslan village
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Tulak lake
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Afghanistan Bande Amir
China (mainland) Jiulingshan Nature Reserve
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e Naz Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Incheh Borun lake and marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kavir region
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khosh-Yeilagh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Divandareh/Zarrineh Owbatu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Telesm plain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mooteh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kalmand Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahram-e-Gour Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Mongolia Tarialan
Mongolia Bulgan Tal
Mongolia Erdenesant Mountains
Iraq Haur Al Haushiya
Iraq Sinnaf Seasonal Wetlands
Iraq Haur Om am Nyaj
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Iraq Shatt Al Arab marshes
Israel Northern Arava valley
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Jordan Irbid - Mafraq plains
Jordan Dibbin Forest
Jordan Dana
Jordan Petra
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
North Macedonia River Zletovska valley
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
Oman Khor Mughsayl
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Yemen Mahwit
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Yemen Jabal Bura
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Cherdoyak
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River
Kazakhstan Urda Sands
Turkmenistan Ersarybaba - Akkyr
Turkmenistan Depmechay
Turkmenistan Akjagaya
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez
Kazakhstan North-western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Kazakhstan Western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Central Marchfeld
Ukraine Ivanivka vallage
Ukraine Ai-Petri
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Ukraine Krasnopols'kyj Forest
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Kazakhstan Alekseevskie steppe pine forests
Kazakhstan Iskrinskie Pine Forests
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Baksanskoye ravine
Russia (European) Verkhnechegemskaya depression
Russia (European) Chegemskoye ravine
Russia (European) Khulamskoye ravine
Russia (European) Sources of Kuma river
Russia (European) Ravine of Eshkakon river
Russia (European) Sources of the Podkumok river
Russia (European) Marinskaya cuesta of Skalisti ridge
Russia (European) Digoriya rocks
Russia (European) Malka river ravine
Russia (European) Ravine of Gundelen-Tyzyl river
Russia (European) Sources of Khudes river
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Koymat - Begarslan
Turkmenistan Tejen
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Staromainskiy forest and bay
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Turkmenistan Garachop
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Kazakhstan Uil River and Taysoygan Sands
Russia (Asian) Islands of the Enisey river near Shushenskoye
Russia (Asian) Perovo lake
Russia (European) Bulukhta area
Russia (European) Lake El'ton
Turkey Tuz Lake
Turkey Bey Mountains
Turkey Çığlıkara Forests (and Avlan Lake)
Turkey Türkmenbaba Mountain
Hungary Hernád Valley
Slovakia Východoslovenská plain
Slovakia Košice valley
Croatia Obronci Fruske gore kod Iloka
Turkey Sündiken Mountains
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
North Macedonia Ovche Pole
North Macedonia Preod-Gjugjance
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
Russia (European) Sources of Alimbet river and Aktykyl ridge
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers
Russia (European) Karabash-Kudashskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Pis'myanskiye Gori area
Russia (European) Shugurovskoye plateau
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river
Russia (European) Cherkaski reserve
Russia (European) Snake hills
Russia (European) Kholmanskiye feathergrass steppes
Russia (European) Prisyun'ski forest
Russia (European) Buninski forest
Russia (European) Ergeninskaya area
Russia (European) Saraly
Russia (European) Watershead of Malaya Sviyaga river
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Russia (European) Vedeneevsk pine forest
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Micleşti wood
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Lebanon Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve
Lebanon Beirut River Valley
Lebanon Jabal Moussa Mountain
Hungary Del-Hevesi-sik
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Langtang National Park
Nepal Makalu Barun National Park
Nepal Sagarmatha National Park
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
China (mainland) Dehong Zizhizhou
Hong Kong (China) Inland New Territories
China (mainland) Nonggang
Ethiopia Lake Langano
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park
Saudi Arabia Taif escarpment
Lebanon Hima Anjar - Kfar Zabad
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Turkey Abant Mountains
Turkey Köroğlu Mountains
Turkey Bolu Mountains
Serbia Koviljski rit
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Evros delta
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece River Axios
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Geropotamos estuary, Crete
Greece Mount Giouchtas, Crete
China (mainland) Bitahai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Habaxueshan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nagpag Co (Napa Hai) Nature Reserve
Azerbaijan Shakhdag Mountain (1)
Georgia Eastern Caucasus mountains
Azerbaijan Samur Delta
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve
Georgia Meskheti Ridge
Georgia Trialeti Ridge
Georgia Batumi
Armenia Amasia
Georgia Madatapha Lake
Armenia Dsegh - Haghartsin - Pombak chain and Dilijan National Park
Azerbaijan Samukh (Hunting Area)
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest
Azerbaijan Jandar Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Maku and Iran west border
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bojagh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mountain Sahand and Sabalan
Russia (European) Varkhatau Ridge
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Kazakhstan Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Turkmenistan Kurendag - Garagoz
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Sumbar
Turkmenistan Garashor
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Turkmenistan Repetek
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Turkmenistan Uzboy
Turkmenistan Gurykhovudan
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Garabil
Turkmenistan Koytendag
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
India Monigong - Jorgging - Tuting
India Jor Beer
India Inderkilla National Park
India Amangarh Reserve Forest
India Naina Devi Himalayan Bird Conservation Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3900 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aquila heliaca. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2020.