Dunlin Calidris alpina


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,960,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 263,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.4,295,000-6,800,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 426,000-562,000 pairs, which equates to 853,000-1,120,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: < c.10,000 individuals on migration and > c.10,000 wintering individuals in China; > c.1,000 individuals on migration and > c.1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; > c.1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; > c.1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The population is therefore placed in the band 4,300,000-6,799,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations are stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population size trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize V Extant Yes
Benin V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) V Extant
Chad V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Costa Rica V Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica V Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant
Ecuador V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala V Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Laos V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Malaysia V Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant
Nicaragua V Extant
Niger V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Panama V Extant
Paraguay V Extant
Peru V Extant
Philippines V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) U Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela V Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Bahrain Tubli Bay
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary)
Canada East Point
China (mainland) Anqing wetlands (Caizi Hu, Wuchang Hu and other lakes)
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hangzhou Wan
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Taizhou Wan
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan
China (mainland) Xuanmen Wan
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Yong Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Yueqing Wan
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Rømø
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Väinameri
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Cap Gris-nez
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Dollart
Germany Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Iceland Ósasvædi Ölfusár
Iceland Skardsfjördur
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Italy Po Delta
Italy Venice lagoon
Japan Fujimae tidal flat
Japan Hakata bay
Japan Inner Ariake bay
Japan Inner Tokyo bay
Japan Shiokawa tidal flat
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Lithuania Flooded coastal meadows near Tyrai bog
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Dollard
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Rottumeroog
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
North Korea Orangchon River estuary
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Reisa
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Khawr Ghawi
Portugal Ria de Aveiro
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Portugal Sado estuary
Portugal Tejo estuary
Romania Danube Delta
Russia (Asian) Bol'shaya River Estuary
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays
Russia (Asian) Korfa Gulf (northern part)
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Baeksu tidal flat
South Korea Daebu-do island
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake
South Korea Suncheon Bay
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
South Korea Yubu-do island
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Ría de Arosa (O Grove) estuary
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lundåkra Bight
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Turkey Gediz Delta
Ukraine Syvash Bay
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Gibraltar Point
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mersey Narrows and North Wirral Foreshore
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom Peak District Moors
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom South Pennine and Peak District Moors
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Yorkshire Dale Moorlands
USA Copper River Delta
USA Kvichak Bay
USA Nelson Lagoon-Mud Bay
USA Teshekpuk Lake-E. Dease Inlet
Vietnam Xuan Thuy

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Other
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance War, civil unrest & military exercises Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Other
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Other
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Calidris alpina. Downloaded from on 25/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/01/2020.