Dunlin Calidris alpina


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,960,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 263,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.4,295,000-6,800,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 426,000-562,000 pairs, which equates to 853,000-1,120,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: < c.10,000 individuals on migration and > c.10,000 wintering individuals in China; > c.1,000 individuals on migration and > c.1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; > c.1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; > c.1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The population is therefore placed in the band 4,300,000-6,799,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations are stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population size trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize V Extant Yes
Benin V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Brunei V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi V Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) V Extant
Chad V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Costa Rica V Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cuba V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica V Extant
Dominican Republic V Extant
Ecuador V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala V Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Laos V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Malaysia V Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant
Nicaragua V Extant
Niger V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Panama V Extant
Paraguay V Extant
Peru V Extant
Philippines V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) U Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela V Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) Stordal-Moskusoksefjord-Badlanddal-Loch Fyne-Myggbukta
Greenland (to Denmark) Østersletten and Knudshoved, Hold With Hope
Belarus Sialiec
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Väike Väin strait
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Abruka island
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare coast
Estonia Käina bay
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Latvia Liepaja lake
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Ria de Aveiro
Portugal Sado estuary
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Iceland Hörgárósar
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Iceland Skardsfjördur
Iceland Hestgerdislón-Hornafjardarfljót
Iceland Markarfljótsaurar
Iceland Brunasandur
Iceland Ósasvædi Ölfusár
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Boyne estuary
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland The Cull and Killag
Ireland Bannow Bay
Ireland Tramore Backstrand
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland Blackwater estuary
Ireland Ballymacoda
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Castlemaine Harbour
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Cummeen Strand (Sligo Harbour)
Ireland Sheskinmore Lough
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Rahasane turlough
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Slovenia River Drava
Sweden Taavavuoma
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Lake Kävsjön – Store Mosse
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden Ottenby
Sweden River Helge
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Lundåkra Bight
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Fjord of Båta
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Engelsmanplaat
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Rottumeroog
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Dollard
Netherlands Westplaat
Netherlands Grevelingen
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Surski reservoir
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Spain Salobrar de Campos Lagoons-Sa Vall
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Urdaibai - Matxitxako
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Middle section of river Guadalquivir reservoirs
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Ría de Arosa (O Grove) estuary
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Ferrolterra-Valdoviño coast
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons
Spain Santander Bay
Spain Pedro Muñoz-Manjavacas endorreic lagoons
Spain El Hito
Spain Tina Menor-Sarnosa island-Oyambre
Spain Janubio saltpans
Spain Coast between Corralejo and Tostón
Spain El Médano coast
Spain Sotavento beach
Spain Coast between Arinaga and Castillo del Romeral
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Littoral Augeron
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Brenne centrale
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Pointe de Grave
France Arjuzanx
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais de Manteyer
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Plaine du Forez
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Avon Valley
United Kingdom Beinn Dearg
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Ben Alder
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Bodmin Moor
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Caenlochan
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Glen Affric to Strathconon
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chew Valley
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Creag Meagaidh
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Drumochter Hills
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Elenydd - Mallaen
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Hill of Colvadale and Sobul
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Loch Lomond
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Mointeach Scadabhaigh
United Kingdom Loch Tarff and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lochnagar
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Lough Neagh and Lough Beg
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Monadhliath
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Harris Mountains
United Kingdom North Inverness Lochs
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Peak District Moors
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands
United Kingdom Pettigoe Plateau
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rinns of Islay
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Rousay
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South Tayside Goose Roosts
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Lough Erne
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Walmore Common
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors
United Kingdom Eoligarry, Barra
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Yorkshire Dale Moorlands
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Antrim Hills
United Kingdom Benacre to Easton Bavents
United Kingdom Cromdale Hills
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom Ladder Hills
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom North Westray Coast
United Kingdom Park, Lewis
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Jersey Shoreline
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Torrile LIPU reserve
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Lalzi Bay
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissunnguit (Grønne Ejland)
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Denmark Coast from Aggersund to Bygholm Vejle
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Harboøre Tange, Plet Enge & Gjeller Sø
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Fanø
Norway Havmyran
Norway Varangerfjord
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Gaulosen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Poland Puck Bay
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Plothen ponds
Germany Helme reservoir Berga-Kelbra
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Chiemsee and Chiemseemoore
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Schlei
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Spreewald
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Bahrain Tubli Bay
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Khawr Ghawi
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Russia (European) Seskar island
Russia (European) Ainov islands
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Anqing wetlands (Caizi Hu, Wuchang Hu and other lakes)
China (mainland) Hangzhou Wan
China (mainland) Yueqing Wan
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
North Korea Orangchon River estuary
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Yubu-do island
Japan Hakata bay
Japan Inner Ariake bay
Japan Inner Tokyo bay
Japan Shiokawa tidal flat
Japan Fujimae tidal flat
Pakistan Outer Indus delta
Russia (Asian) Korfa Gulf (northern part)
Russia (Asian) Bol'shaya River Estuary
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Dongjin estuary
Vietnam Xuan Thuy
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake
South Korea Suncheon Bay
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Daebu-do island
South Korea Baeksu tidal flat
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Latvia Randu meadows
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Basse vallée du Var
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Val de Saône
France Etang de Lindre
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (European) Rybachii Peninsula and Ushakovski bay
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary)
Canada Big Bay south to Delusion Bay
Canada Nelson River Estuary and Marsh Point
Canada Quaco Bay
Canada Dorchester Cape and Grand Anse
Canada Twin Islands
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park
Canada Amherst Island
Canada Hannah Bay
Canada Longridge Point and Associated Coastline
Canada Netitishi Point
Canada Moose River Estuary
Canada Big Piskwanish Point
Canada East Point
Canada Marais de Pointe-au-Père
Canada Barre de Portneuf
Canada Batture Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River
Canada Saint-Vallier
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Masirah island
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia King Faisal Airbase, Tabuk
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Jazirah
Yemen Aden
Bahamas Gilliam Bay
Belize Belize Coastal and near shore islands
Aruba (to Netherlands) Tierra del Sol Salina
Aruba (to Netherlands) Bubali Wetlands
Netherlands Markiezaat
Bahamas Joulter Cays
United Kingdom Gibraltar Point
United Kingdom Mersey Narrows and North Wirral Foreshore
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
United Kingdom Sleibhtean Agus Chladach Thiriodh
Poland Rozwarowo Marshes
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Pasleka river valley
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
United Kingdom South Pennine and Peak District Moors
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Upper Labunka River Valley
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Turkey Gediz Delta
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Ireland Ballysadare Bay
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Taiwan, China Dapingding and Hsutsuo Harbor
Netherlands Delta Coast
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Netherlands Duinen Goeree & Kwade Hoek
USA Kvichak Bay
USA Nelson Lagoon-Mud Bay
USA Copper River Delta
USA Teshekpuk Lake-E. Dease Inlet
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Germany Engerhafer Meede
Germany Dollart
Germany Ammersee
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, embanked area
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Einswarder Plate / Tegeler Plate
Germany Rysumer Nacken
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Hauke-Haien Koog
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Ireland Killala Bay
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Connemara Bogs (south-east)
Ireland Lough Foyle
Ireland Courtmacsherry, Broadstrand and Dunworley Complex
Ireland Donegal Bay
Ireland Connemara Bogs (south-east), including Roundstone Bog
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Romania Danube Delta
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Denmark Glomstrup Vig, Agerø, Munkholm and Katholm Odde, Lindholm, and Rotholme
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands)
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Lovns Bredning
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Sprogø and Halsskov Rev
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Lithuania Flooded coastal meadows near Tyrai bog
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Yong Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Taizhou Wan
China (mainland) Xuanmen Wan
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Tenna & Herøy
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Norway Tanamunningen
Norway Iešjávri
Norway Reisa
Denmark Mågerodde and Karby Odde
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Russia (Asian) Kanchalan river basin
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø
Tunisia Sebkhet Dreiaâ
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Norway Hardangervidda
Norway Dovrefjell
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Peipsi
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Ba Al Ghaylam
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Germany Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Chott Boul
China (mainland) Dongsha shoals
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
China (mainland) Rudong coast
China (mainland) Dongling coast
China (mainland) Xinghua Bay

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Other
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance War, civil unrest & military exercises Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Other
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Other
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Calidris alpina. Downloaded from on 05/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 05/07/2020.