LC
Double-crested Cormorant Nannopterum auritus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Following Kennedy and Spencer (2014) the genus Phalacrocorax has been divided into six genera, with P. auritus, P. brasilianus and P. harrisi moved into Nannopterum (HBW and BirdLife International 2018).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2018. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 3. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v3_Nov18.zip.
Kennedy, Martyn & Spencer, Hamish. 2014. Classification of the Cormorants of the World. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 79: 249-257.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 28,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 21,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.6 - - -

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006). In North America, this species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years (2200% increase over 40 years, equating to a 120% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belize N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) V Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guatemala U Extant
Haiti N Extant
Ireland V Extant
Jamaica V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Balabas Island
Canada Lavalleé Lake
Canada Malpeque Bay
Canada North Channel Island
Canada Pelee Island Archipelago
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park
Canada South Long Island
Canada Suggi Lake
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río
Cuba Río Máximo
Mexico Centro de Veracruz
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Mexico Estero Santa Cruz
Mexico Humedales Costeros del Norte de la Península de Yucatán
Mexico Humedales de Alvarado
Mexico Isla Contoy
Mexico Laguna de Términos
Mexico Ría Celestún
Mexico Ría Lagartos
Mexico Sian Ka'an
Mexico Tecolutla
Mexico Yum-balam
USA Blanco Reef
USA East Sand Island
USA False Klamath
USA Outer Banks Inshore Ocean
USA Trinidad Complex

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Nannopterum auritus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/02/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/02/2020.