Double-crested Cormorant Nannopterum auritus


Taxonomic note
Following Kennedy and Spencer (2014) the genus Phalacrocorax has been divided into six genera, with P. auritus, P. brasilianus and P. harrisi moved into Nannopterum (HBW and BirdLife International 2018).

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2018. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 3. Available at:
Kennedy, Martyn & Spencer, Hamish. 2014. Classification of the Cormorants of the World. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 79: 249-257.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 28,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 21,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.6 - - -

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006). In North America, this species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years (2200% increase over 40 years, equating to a 120% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belize N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) V Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guatemala U Extant
Haiti N Extant
Ireland V Extant
Jamaica V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Portugal V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada St. Mary Reservoir
Canada Lake Newell and Kitsim Reservoir
Canada McGregor Lake and Travers Reservoir
Canada Dowling Lake
Canada Muriel Lake
Canada Utikuma and Utikumasis Lakes
Canada Beaverhill Lake
Canada Lakeland
Canada Pakowki Lake
Canada Ministik, Joseph and Oliver Lakes
Canada Hays Reservoir
Canada Frank Lake (south)
Canada Lac La Biche
Canada Pelican Lake (Alberta)
Canada Chain Islets and Great Chain Islet
Canada Cowichan estuary
Canada Moore and Byers Islands and Banks
Canada Delta Marsh
Canada Kaweenakumik Lake
Canada Pipestone Rocks
Canada Duck Island
Canada North, West, and East Shoal Lakes
Canada Little George Island
Canada North Channel Island
Canada Dory's Reef
Canada South Long Island
Canada Sagemace and Coleman Bay Islands
Canada Kasakeemeemisekak Islands
Canada Lake St. Martin Islands
Canada Long Island and Long Island Bay
Canada Louis Island and Associated Reefs
Canada Sand Reef Islands
Canada Spruce Island Reef
Canada Balabas Island
Canada Pokeshaw Rock
Canada Heron Island
Canada Manawagonish Island
Canada Bird Islands
Canada Prince Edward County South Shore
Canada Presqu'ile Provincial Park
Canada Dundas Valley and Dundas Marsh
Canada Point Pelee
Canada Greater Rondeau Area
Canada Pelee Island Natural Areas
Canada Pelee Island Archipelago
Canada The Watchers
Canada The Cousins
Canada Holiday Beach / Big Creek CA
Canada Leslie Street Spit
Canada Pigeon Island
Canada Limestone Islands
Canada Amherst Island
Canada Malpeque Bay
Canada Bonaventure Island
Canada Île aux Loups Marins
Canada Shigawake-Newport
Canada Cap d'Espoir
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Péninsule de Forillon
Canada Îles Les Boules
Canada Marais de la baie de L'Isle-Verte
Canada Île Bicquette
Canada Île aux Basques et Les Razades
Canada Île aux Pommes
Canada Île Blanche
Canada Îles Pèlerins
Canada Brandypot Islands
Canada Îles Sainte-Marie
Canada Watshishou
Canada Petite Île Sainte-Geneviève
Canada La Grosse Boule Island
Canada Corossol Island
Canada Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes
Canada Batture Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River
Canada Le Pilier de Pierre
Canada Le Pilier de Bois
Canada Île aux Hérons Migratory Bird Sanctuary
Canada Lac Saint-Louis et Îles-de-la-Paix
Canada Last Mountain Lake National Wildlife Area
Canada Lavalleé Lake
Canada Alkali Lake
Canada Old Wives-Frederick Lakes
Canada Reed Lake
Canada Paysen/Kettlehut Lake
Canada Lake Lenore
Canada Basin and Middle Lakes
Canada Primrose Lake
Canada Suggi Lake
Canada Kazan Lake
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Bahamas Cay Sal
Bahamas Southern Great Lake
Mexico Humedales de Alvarado
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río
Mexico Centro de Veracruz
Cuba Río Máximo
Mexico Humedales Costeros del Norte de la Península de Yucatán
Mexico Isla Contoy
Mexico Laguna de Mecoacán
Mexico Laguna de Términos
Mexico Yum Balam
Mexico Tecolutla
Mexico Ría Celestún
Mexico Ría Lagartos
Mexico Sian Ka'an
Canada Malpeque Bay / Cascumpec Bay/Alberton Harbour - Marine
Cuba Maximo River - Marine
Cuba Pinar del Rio Southern Wetland - Marine
USA Blanco Reef
USA East Sand Island
USA False Klamath
USA Farallon Islands
USA Trinidad Complex
Mexico Archipiélago Bahía de los Angeles
Mexico Isla San Jerónimo
Mexico Isla Alcatraz
USA Outer Banks Inshore Ocean
Mexico Estero Santa Cruz
Mexico Isla Asunción
Mexico Isla San Marcos
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Mexico Archipiélago Loreto
Mexico Bahía Navachiste
Mexico Bahía Magdalena-Almejas
Mexico Complejo Lagunar Ojo de Liebre
Mexico Bahía e Islas de San Jorge
Mexico Agiabampo

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Nannopterum auritus. Downloaded from on 01/10/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/10/2022.