Diademed Amazon Amazona diadema


Justification of Red List Category
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km² combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
There is no direct data on the species's population size. Based on density estimates of congeners (first quartile and median: 2 and 3 individuals per km2), the area of tree cover with at least 50% canopy cover within the species's mapped range in 2020 (91,460 km2; Global Forest Watch 2020) and assuming 25-40% of forest within the species's range is occupied, the population size is tentatively suspected to fall within the range 46,000 - 110,000 individuals, roughly equating to 30,000 - 74,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
Based on remote-sensed data showing a small amount of deforestation within the species's range since 2000 (Global Forest Watch 2020), the species is inferred to be declining. Four percent of forest with at least 50% canopy was lost within the species's range between 2001 and 2019 (Global Forest Watch 2020). Assuming a similar rate over the past three generations, this would equate to a reduction of around 8% over 35 years. Rates of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon were higher before the mid-2000s, so the average rate of deforestation over the past 35 years may have been greater than that inferred from loss since 2000, but the area where the species is found has not been subjected to high levels of deforestation and retained 89% tree cover in 2010 (Global Forest Watch 2020). The species is found in modified habitats so it may not have declined at the same rate as the forest. However, the species is assumed to experience some trapping pressure, so is suspected to have declined by 5-15% over the past three generations.

Between 2016 and 2019, approximately 1.4% of forest was lost within the species's range within four years (Global Forest Watch 2020). If this rate were to continue, on average, over the next three generations (35 years), this would amount to a total loss of 12% of forest. The species is suspected to undergo a population reduction of 10-19% over the three generations from 2016, and over the next three generations.

Distribution and population

Amazona diadema is endemic to Brazil, where it has been recorded in the lower río Negro and adjacent northern bank of río Amazon, in Amazonas and NW Pará states, and recently on the lower river Madeira (WikiAves 2019, A. Lees in litt. 2020).


This species is likely to frequent a variety of lowland forest habitats, including the edges of evergreen forest, as well as modified areas containing scattered trees or plantations (del Hoyo et al. 1997, del Hoyo et al. 2016). It feeds mainly on fruits and seeds, including those from some cultivated species (del Hoyo et al. 1997), although there are no published data (del Hoyo et al. 2016).


The primary threat to this species is deforestation in the Amazon Basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network, coupled with its susceptibility to trapping (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Recent changes to environmental policy in Brazil are seemingly incentivizing farmers to clear more land, and the rate of clear-cut deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon in 2019 was 30% greater than that of 2018, although the area where this species is found has not been affected as badly as other areas (S. Dantas in litt. 2020, INPE 2019, Global Forest Watch 2020). The species is assumed to experience some trapping pressure, probably mainly for domestic trade, as this species is rare in aviculture (del Hoyo et al. 1997, del Hoyo et al. 2016).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species, although some of its habitat is protected. Occurs within Jaú National Park where it is rare to infrequent (Borges et al. 2001, Borges & Almeida 2011).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to estimate the population size. Monitor rates of deforestation in its range using remote sensing techniques. Study the level of threat from trapping. Increase the area of suitable habitat that receives effective protection. Lobby for changes in laws relating to deforestation and forest protection.


Text account compilers
Wheatley, H.

Lees, A., Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Amazona diadema. Downloaded from on 03/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/07/2022.