LC
Demoiselle Crane Anthropoides virgo



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 2417 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 9,410,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.230,000-261,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 9,700-13,300 pairs, which equates to 19,400-26,500 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations are decreasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 33.6 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
Germany V Extant
Greece V Extant
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant
Japan V Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco U Possibly Extinct
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Portugal V Extant
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Slovakia N Extant
South Korea V Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Syria V Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Russia (European) Lake El'ton
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve)
Russia (European) Uttinskaya area
Russia (European) Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski
Ukraine Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Bilogir'ya
Georgia Iori Region
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Sudan Gezira
Turkey Ağrı Plain
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Saudi Arabia Jabal Aja and Northern Ha'il
Yemen Al-Murah
Yemen Aden
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman
Russia (European) Manoilinskaya steppe
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor)
Mongolia Baga and Bayan Lakes
Mongolia Ulziitiin Sangiin Dalai Lake
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Delta of Orkhon and Selenge Rivers
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
India Jaikwadi Wildlife Sanctuary
India Nandur Madhmeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary
Mongolia Ogii Lake
China (mainland) Changtang plateau
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Talduair mountain
Russia (Central Asian) Birsuat
Russia (Central Asian) Sources of the Bolshaya Karaganka and Syntasty rivers
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area
Russia (European) Outskirts of village Lepekhinka
Armenia Amasia
Armenia Gndasar
Armenia Metsamor
Armenia Tashir
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Zingeika lake
Russia (Central Asian) Reservoir near river Sukhaya
Russia (Central Asian) Ebeity lake
Russia (Central Asian) Tundyt mountain
Russia (European) Balka Yablonya
Russia (Central Asian) Altyr' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'ko-Solenoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Mongolia Tarialan
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Ganga Lakes
Mongolia Erdenesant Mountains
Jordan Azraq
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Uzbekistan Aksay Lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River
Kazakhstan Urda Sands
Kazakhstan Teke Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Iskrinskie Pine Forests
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Manych salt lakes
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Zhuravlinaya
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan)
Uzbekistan Chimkurgan Reservoir
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Uzbekistan South-west Gizzar Foothills
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Russia (European) Taman'
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Prikumskiye steppes
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods
Russia (European) Outskirts of Arbali village
Russia (European) Manychstroi area
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Turkey Bulanık and Malazgirt Plains
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Turkey Haçlı Lake
Kazakhstan Sagyz
Russia (Asian) Perovo lake
Russia (European) Drofiny area
Turkey Kulu Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity)
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river
Russia (European) Ergeninskaya area
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Uzbekistan Talimardzhan Reservoir
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Son-Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Karkyra Valley
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Cyprus Paramali River and Plateau
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Shcherbakty Lakes
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Desert Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Anthropoides virgo. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022.