Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Near Threatened A3cde
2016 Vulnerable A2ce+3ce+4ce
2012 Vulnerable A2ce+3ce+4ce
2008 Vulnerable A2c,e; A3c,e; A4c,e
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 14,900,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 11400-13400 medium estimated 2017
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -

Population justification: The population was previously estimated to number 4,350-4,800 individuals in the Black Sea and Mediterranean; 6,000-9,000 individuals in South-East Asia and south Asia, and 50 individuals in east Asia (Simba Chan in litt. 2005), totalling 10,000-13,900 individuals, which roughly equates to 6,700-9,300 mature individuals.

Catsadorakis and Portolou (2017) have since reviewed the global population of the species, and have calculated a revised estimate of the global population size at a minimum of 5,693-6,694 breeding pairs, and potentially as high as 7,342-8,984 pairs (G. Catsadorakis in litt. 2017). Taking the estimate from Catsadorakis and Portolou 2017 and converting to mature individuals produces a revised population estimate of 11,386-13,388, rounded here to 11,400-13,400 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Of the nine countries where the species breeds regularly, four populations are fluctuating (Russia, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Montenegro), three are increasing (Greece, Turkey and Albania) and one is stable (Romania) (Catsadorakis and Portolou 2017), with indications that the populations in Russia and Montenegro may be increasing too (G. Catsadorakis in litt. 2017). Based on the available data, the species is also thought to have increased overall in Kazakhstan over the last decade (A. Zhatkanbayev in litt. to Catsadorakis and Portolou 2017). Given this data, it is therefore plausible that the species has actually increased over the past 3 generations (33 years), and in the European Red List the species was listed as Least Concern at regional scale because of such increases (BirdLife International 2015). There are still population declines being reported for some countries, particularly those outside of Europe (Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, parts of Kazakhstan and Iran), but the data suggests that overall these have been outweighed by the increases elsewhere.

However, there remains some doubt about the current overall size and trend of the breeding population in Kazakhstan, which potentially contains 29-47% of the global population and where a number of threats remain active (Catsadorakis and Portolou 2017). Additionally, the species in south-east Europe is entirely management-dependent and so the removal of conservation measures could lead to future population declines (G. Catsadorakis in litt. 2017). Therefore, there is the potential for large declines in the future (though not necessarily >30% of the global population over 3 generations), even though the evidence suggests that the species has not globally declined in the recent past. As such, it is precautionarily suspected that this species could undergo moderately rapid declines in the next three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Possibly Extinct Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extinct Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extinct Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extinct Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extinct Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy V Extant
Japan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extinct Yes Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia U Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant
South Korea V Extant
Spain V Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka U Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
North Macedonia Lake Prespa
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Rozov Kladenets Reservoir
Bulgaria Strandzha
Bulgaria Chengene Skele
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Parches-Somova wetland
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake)
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Bafa Lake
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Aktaş Lake
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lake Doïrani
Russia (European) Mouth of Samur river
Russia (European) Adzhi Lake
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Eastern coast of the Sea of Azov
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Shalkaro-Zhetykol'ski lake system
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Salt lakes in the Primorsko-Akhtarsk area
Russia (European) Burukshunskiye limans
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan)
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Patoku lagoon
Romania Bistreţ
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Çıldır Lake
Iraq Haur Om am Nyaj
Iraq Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah
Iraq Haur Uwainah
Iraq Central Marshes
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Russia (European) Turali lakes
Russia (European) Sulakskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Turalinskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Temirgoiskiye lakes
Russia (European) Mekhteb reservoir
Russia (European) Oling area
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
China (mainland) Zhuanghe Coast
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Futian
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Mongolia Khoton-Khorgon Lakes
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Orog Lake
Mongolia Santmargatsyn Bayan Lake
Mongolia Khomiin Tal
Mongolia Taatsiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
China (mainland) Lanbowan–Qilihe Wetland
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Pakistan Jiwani Beaches and Dasht Kaur
Pakistan Torghar Nature Sanctuary and the Shingar range
Pakistan Hingol National Park
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Pakistan Manchar Lake
Pakistan Phoosna Wetlands Complex
Pakistan Ucchali Wetland Complex
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Keti Bundar North Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Kirthar National Park (including Hub Dam)
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake
India Kaziranga National Park
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Flamingo City
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
India Khijadiya Lake and Bird Sanctuary
India Marine National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Saltpans of Bhavnagar
India Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kanjli Lake
India Bardha Dam
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Sambhar Lake
India Sareri Bandh
India Sariska Tiger Reserve
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gongping Dahu Nature Reserve
Pakistan Outer Indus delta
Georgia Jandari Lake
Georgia Kartsakhi Lake
Georgia Khanchali Lake
Georgia Madatapha Lake
Georgia Bogdasheni Lake
Russia (European) Lake Ayke
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Topol'noye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Tenis
Russia (Central Asian) Burlinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Saltaim-Tenis lake
Russia (Central Asian) Siverga lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kaban'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Tundrovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Tavolzhnoe and vicinities
Russia (Central Asian) System of lakes Kurlady-Selezjan-Atkul
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Kurlady 2
Russia (Central Asian) Vicinities of lake Achikul
Azerbaijan Sahil settlement - Shelf factory
Russia (Central Asian) Stekleney Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurlady Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Krutali Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lakes of Tobolo-Ishimskaya forest-steppe
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Rupite
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Ovtcharitsa Reservoir
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Tortoise Islands
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Isei Lake
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Shchuch'ye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Beloye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Inder'
Russia (Central Asian) Mayan lake
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
North Macedonia Pelagonia
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Pozam - Maytab coast
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iraq Haur Al Haushiya
Iraq Sinnaf Seasonal Wetlands
Mongolia Taigam Lake
Iraq Shatt Al Arab marshes
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Island near Gorni Tzibar
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Pozharevo Island
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Uzbekistan Zekry Lake
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Yuzhno-Surkhan (South-Surkhan) Reservoir
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Kazakhstan Kamysh-Samarskie Lakes
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Ayrakly – Garadzhaovlak
Turkmenistan Khanguyy
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Turkmenistan Erajy
Turkmenistan Nargyz
Turkmenistan Soltandag Lake
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Taylak Lake
Turkmenistan Soltansanjar - Duyeboyun
Turkmenistan Kelif Lakes
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Kazakhstan Karasuk
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Lakes in the lower reaches of the Chu River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Turkmenistan Gorelde
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Kazakhstan Telikol Lakes
Russia (European) Sulakskaya bay
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Turkmenistan South Cheleken Bay
Russia (European) Manych salt lakes
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Lebanon Ras Al Chaqaa
Russia (European) Krasnodarskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Russia (European) Manychstroi area
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Turkey Hotamış Marshes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Russia (European) Kozinka lake and Baranikovski segment of Manych
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'ye lake
Greece Lake Voulkaria
Russia (European) Tyuleni island
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Lake Gălăţui
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Black Sea
Romania Lake Mostiştea
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Suhaia
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Kazakhstan Amangeldy
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Wetlands of Karasuk town
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
Russia (Central Asian) Baganskiye Lakes
China (mainland) Hangzhou Wan
China (mainland) Rong Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Uzbekistan Akpetky lakes and surrounding Aralkum Desert
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Egypt Suez
Montenegro Bojana Delta
Turkey Güllük Bay
Russia (European) Utrish Reserve and adjacent coastal waters
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Greece River Axios
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Lakes Trichonis and Lysimachia
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Albania Skadar Lake - Buna River - Velipoje - Vau i Dejes
Albania Prespa and surrounding area
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
China (mainland) Rudong coast
China (mainland) Haifeng wetlands
India Sardar Samand Lake
India Gosabara (Mokarsar) wetland complex
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Lake Megali Prespa
Albania Lake Mikri Prespa
Albania Lake Butrinti
Albania Velipoja

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Sus scrofa Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Pelecanus crispus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/08/2022.