Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Near Threatened A3cde
2016 Vulnerable A2ce+3ce+4ce
2012 Vulnerable A2ce+3ce+4ce
2008 Vulnerable A2c,e; A3c,e; A4c,e
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 14,900,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 11400-13400 medium estimated 2017
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 1975-2008
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (years) 11 - - -

Population justification: The population was previously estimated to number 4,350-4,800 individuals in the Black Sea and Mediterranean; 6,000-9,000 individuals in South-East Asia and south Asia, and 50 individuals in east Asia (Simba Chan in litt. 2005), totalling 10,000-13,900 individuals, which roughly equates to 6,700-9,300 mature individuals.

Catsadorakis and Portolou (2017) have since reviewed the global population of the species, and have calculated a revised estimate of the global population size at a minimum of 5,693-6,694 breeding pairs, and potentially as high as 7,342-8,984 pairs (G. Catsadorakis in litt. 2017). Taking the estimate from Catsadorakis and Portolou 2017 and converting to mature individuals produces a revised population estimate of 11,386-13,388, rounded here to 11,400-13,400 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Of the nine countries where the species breeds regularly, four populations are fluctuating (Russia, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Montenegro), three are increasing (Greece, Turkey and Albania) and one is stable (Romania) (Catsadorakis and Portolou 2017), with indications that the populations in Russia and Montenegro may be increasing too (G. Catsadorakis in litt. 2017). Based on the available data, the species is also thought to have increased overall in Kazakhstan over the last decade (A. Zhatkanbayev in litt. to Catsadorakis and Portolou 2017). Given this data, it is therefore plausible that the species has actually increased over the past 3 generations (33 years), and in the European Red List the species was listed as Least Concern at regional scale because of such increases (BirdLife International 2015). There are still population declines being reported for some countries, particularly those outside of Europe (Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, parts of Kazakhstan and Iran), but the data suggests that overall these have been outweighed by the increases elsewhere.

However, there remains some doubt about the current overall size and trend of the breeding population in Kazakhstan, which potentially contains 29-47% of the global population and where a number of threats remain active (Catsadorakis and Portolou 2017). Additionally, the species in south-east Europe is entirely management-dependent and so the removal of conservation measures could lead to future population declines (G. Catsadorakis in litt. 2017). Therefore, there is the potential for large declines in the future (though not necessarily >30% of the global population over 3 generations), even though the evidence suggests that the species has not globally declined in the recent past. As such, it is precautionarily suspected that this species could undergo moderately rapid declines in the next three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan extant native yes yes
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant vagrant
Armenia extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes yes
Bangladesh possibly extinct native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extinct native yes
Bulgaria extant native yes yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Croatia extinct native yes
Cyprus extant vagrant
Czechia extant vagrant
Egypt extant native yes
Georgia extant native yes yes
Germany extinct native yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Hong Kong (China) extant native yes
Hungary extinct vagrant yes
India extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Israel extant native yes yes
Italy extant vagrant
Japan extant vagrant
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kuwait extant vagrant yes yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Latvia extant vagrant
Lebanon extant native yes
Moldova extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
North Macedonia extinct native yes yes
Norway extant vagrant
Oman extant vagrant yes
Pakistan extant native yes
Poland extant vagrant
Romania extant native yes yes
Russia extant native yes yes yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes yes
Russia (European) extant native yes yes
Serbia extant uncertain yes
Slovakia extant vagrant
South Korea extant vagrant
Spain extant vagrant yes yes
Sri Lanka extant uncertain
Syria extant native yes
Taiwan, China extant vagrant
Tajikistan extant native yes yes
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes yes
United Arab Emirates extant vagrant yes
Uzbekistan extant native yes
Western Sahara extant vagrant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Türkiye Meriç Delta
Türkiye Uluabat Lake
Türkiye Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake)
Türkiye Bafa Lake
Türkiye Büyük Menderes Delta
Türkiye Ereğli Plain
Türkiye Göksu Delta
Türkiye Aktaş Lake
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lake Doïrani
Russia (European) Shalkaro-Zhetykol'ski lake system
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Albania Narta Lagoon
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Azerbaijan Shorgel lakes/Shirvan reserve
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Türkiye Çıldır Lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
Russia (European) Turali lakes
Russia (European) Turalinskaya lagoon
Russia (European) Temirgoiskiye lakes
Russia (European) Mekhteb reservoir
Russia (European) Oling area
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Futian
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
Mongolia Khoton-Khorgon Lakes
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Orog Lake
Mongolia Santmargatsyn Bayan Lake
Mongolia Khomiin Tal
Mongolia Taatsiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
China (mainland) Lanbowan–Qilihe Wetland
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Pakistan Jiwani Beaches and Dasht Kaur
Pakistan Hingol National Park
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Pakistan Manchar Lake
Pakistan Phoosna Wetlands Complex
Pakistan Ucchali Wetland Complex
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Keti Bundar North Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Kirthar National Park (including Hub Dam)
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake
India Kaziranga National Park
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Flamingo City
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
India Khijadiya Lake and Bird Sanctuary
India Marine National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Saltpans of Bhavnagar
India Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kanjli Lake
India Bardha Dam
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Sambhar Lake
India Sareri Bandh
India Sariska Tiger Reserve
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gongping Dahu Nature Reserve
Pakistan Outer Indus delta
Georgia Kartsakhi Lake
Georgia Khanchali Lake
Georgia Madatapha Lake
Georgia Bogdasheni Lake
Russia (European) Lake Ayke
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Topol'noye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kaban'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Tundrovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) System of lakes Kurlady-Selezjan-Atkul
Azerbaijan Sahil settlement - Shelf factory
Russia (Central Asian) Stekleney Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Krutali Lake
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Tortoise Islands
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Beloye lake
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
North Macedonia Lake Prespa
North Macedonia Pelagonia
Mongolia Taigam Lake
North Macedonia Lake Dojran
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Island near Gorni Tzibar
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Ovtcharitsa Reservoir
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Pozharevo Island
Bulgaria Rozov Kladenets Reservoir
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Varna-Beloslav Lakes Complex
Bulgaria Emine
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Uzbekistan Zekry Lake
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Kazakhstan Kamysh-Samarskie Lakes
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Khankhovuz
Turkmenistan Nargyz
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Soltansanjar - Duyeboyun
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Lakes in the lower reaches of the Chu River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Akzhar Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Turkmenistan Gorelde
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Teniz-Karakamys Lakes
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Agrakhanski Bay (North Agrakhan)
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Sulakskaya bay
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Manychstroi area
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Russia (European) Kozinka lake and Baranikovski segment of Manych
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Türkiye Marmara Lake
Türkiye Gediz Delta
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'ye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurlady Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Saltaim-Tenis lake
Russia (European) Tyuleni island
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Lake Gălăţui
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Limanu - Herghelia
Romania Black Sea
Romania Lake Mostiştea
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Suhaia
Romania Lake Taşaul
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Amangeldy
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
China (mainland) Hangzhou Wan
China (mainland) Rong Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Uzbekistan Akpetky lakes and surrounding Aralkum Desert
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Russia (European) Burukshunskiye limans
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Aggyol
India Sardar Samand Lake
India Gosabara (Mokarsar) wetland complex
Montenegro Bojana Delta
Montenegro Skadar Lake
Montenegro Ulcinj saltpans

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Sus scrofa Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pelecanus crispus. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/dalmatian-pelican-pelecanus-crispus on 26/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 26/09/2023.